Animals and Alternatives in Toxicology

Present Status and Future Prospects

  • Michael Balls
  • James Bridges
  • Jacqueline Southee

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xiii
  2. David G. Clark, Robin Fielder, Clive Joseph, John Gardner, Maurice Smith
    Pages 1-21
  3. Dennis W. Swanston, J. Gordon Black, Paul A. Duffy, Mark A. Pemberton
    Pages 23-51
  4. Peter H. Bach, Andrew Cockburn, David J. Esdaile, Paul Grasso, Cyndy E. Lumley
    Pages 53-89
  5. R. Colin Garner
    Pages 91-120
  6. Christopher K. Atterwill, Michael G. Simpson, Richard J. Evans, Sandra L. Allen, David Ray
    Pages 121-152
  7. Paul Duffy, Stuart Freeman, Derek Newall
    Pages 177-199
  8. Glyn Volans, Peter Blain, Peter Bennett, Colin Berry, Jenny Sims, Steven Warrington
    Pages 201-221
  9. Colin H. Walker, Peter W. Greig-Smith, Norman O. Crossland, Richard Brown
    Pages 223-251
  10. David Bawden, Michael S. Tute, John C. Dearden
    Pages 253-289
  11. Michael Balls, Christoph A. Reinhardt, Horst Spielmann, Erik Walum
    Pages 291-312
  12. Michael Balls, Michael Garle, Richard Clothier
    Pages 313-339
  13. André McLean
    Pages 341-344
  14. Back Matter
    Pages 345-390

About this book


This volume considers the second report of the FRAME Toxicity Committee presenting reviews and discussions by invited authors and general discussions. It covers developments in toxicology and the use of non-animal methods in toxicity testing since the first report, published in 1983; it highlights the need for rationalisation and harmonisation of regulatory guidelines for more critical attitudes toward currently accepted animal tests and for more attention to be focussed on non-animal alternatives; how to inform scientists of alternatives to animals; and how to develop and integrate non-animal alternatives. The book is a key document in the development, validation, and use of non-animal methods and is aimed at toxicologists, pharmacologists, and policy-makers in academia, industry and government.


allergy neurotoxicity pharmacology research toxicity toxicology

Editors and affiliations

  • Michael Balls
    • 1
  • James Bridges
    • 2
  • Jacqueline Southee
    • 3
  1. 1.University of NottinghamUK
  2. 2.University of SurreyGuildfordUK
  3. 3.FRAMENottinghamUK

Bibliographic information