Natural and Synthetic Materials

  • W. B. Betts

Part of the Springer Series in Applied Biology book series (SSAPPL.BIOLOGY)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xii
  2. K. H. Engesser, P. Fischer
    Pages 15-54
  3. R. N. Smith
    Pages 55-68
  4. J. M. Wyatt, S. J. Palmer
    Pages 69-88
  5. N. Mackay, W. B. Betts
    Pages 89-117
  6. G. K. Sims, M. Radosevich, X. T. He, S. J. Traina
    Pages 119-137
  7. W. B. Betts, R. K. Dart, A. S. Ball, S. L. Pedlar
    Pages 139-155
  8. H. E. Schoemaker, U. Tuor, A. Muheim, H. W. H. Schmidt, M. S. A. Leisola
    Pages 157-174
  9. C. S. Evans
    Pages 175-184
  10. R. K. Dart, W. B. Betts
    Pages 201-217
  11. B. F. P. Little
    Pages 219-234
  12. Back Matter
    Pages 235-238

About this book


Two major problems encountered as we approach a new century are the availability of resources for chemicals and energy, and environmental pollution. This book highlights the importance of biotransformation as a solution to these problems and considers traditionally separate areas as one interdependent discipline, in terms of the underlying mechanistic biochemistry and the research techniques employed. The provision of resources has largely centred around non-renewable materials, especially oil. Diminishing reserves of these, together with uncertainties of supply and cost have stimulated great interest in renewable resources. These are largely lignocellulosic materials (e.g. wood and straw) which are available through natural biomass turnover, farming and forestry and from wastes generated by industrial processes. An excellent example is that of kraft lignin, a by-product of pulp and paper production, amounting to 60 million tonnes per annum and which is largely wasted by burning or landfilling. This aromatic polymer has enormous potential as a feedstock to the chemical industry. Environmental pollution is no longer accepted as inevitable for a technological society. Over the past decade there has been a tremendous increase in awareness of the effects of pollution and public pressure has influenced both industry and government. However, to be realistic, it is not possible to replace all processes generating polluting wastes with clean alternatives. Instead, treatments of pollution, both at source and after an incident, are alternatives in many instances and a great deal of emphasis is currently being placed on these.


energy environment environmental pollution enzymes microorganism pesticides pollution soil

Editors and affiliations

  • W. B. Betts
    • 1
  1. 1.Mycotech, Institute for Applied Biology, Department of BiologyUniversity of YorkUK

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag London 1991
  • Publisher Name Springer, London
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-1-4471-3472-5
  • Online ISBN 978-1-4471-3470-1
  • Series Print ISSN 1431-8539
  • Buy this book on publisher's site