Societal, psychological, and clinical perspectives

  • Michael Linden
  • Andreas Maercker

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xviii
  2. Introduction

    1. Michael Linden, Andreas Maercker
      Pages 1-3
  3. Features of embitterment

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 5-5
    2. Beate Schrank, Astrid Grant Hay
      Pages 17-29
    3. Ira Gäbler, Andreas Maercker
      Pages 42-69
    4. Anna K. Berkefeld, Dieter F. Braus
      Pages 101-117
  4. Context of embitterment

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 119-119
    2. Kurt Hahlweg, Donald H. Baucom
      Pages 119-128
    3. Carsten Wrosch, Jesse Renaud
      Pages 129-141
    4. Anja Mehnert, Sigrun Vehling
      Pages 142-153
    5. Beate Muschalla, Michael Linden
      Pages 154-167
    6. Max Rotter
      Pages 177-186
  5. Context of embitterment

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 187-187
    2. Nathaniel G. Wade, Brian C. Post, Marilyn A. Cornish
      Pages 197-207
    3. Barbara Lieberei, Michael Linden
      Pages 208-219
  6. Classifcation of embitterment

  7. Back Matter
    Pages 311-328

About this book


Embitterment is a distinct state of mood known to everyone. It can be seen in the context of exceptional though “normal” negative life events. It is an emotional reaction e.g. to humiliation, to being severely disappointed by others, or to violations of basic values. Embitterment is accompanied by other emotions like feelings of hopelessness and helplessness, poor moods and a lack of drive, and aggression towards oneself and others. It can end in suicide or even murder-suicide and in a distinct pathological state known as “Posttraumatic Embitterment Disorder (PTED)”. But despite the high prevalence rates, the detrimental effects on individuals and its forensic and societal importance, embitterment has yet to receive due scientific attention.
In this book pioneers in embitterment research summarize the current knowledge on embitterment, its triggers, phenomenology and consequences. The work is intended to stimulate international debate and to contribute to a better understanding of embitterment and a deeper appreciation of the impact of exceptional but normal negative life events on psychological well-being.


PTED PTSD adjustment disorders negative life events

Editors and affiliations

  • Michael Linden
    • 1
  • Andreas Maercker
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Behavioral and Psychosomatic MedicineRehabilitation Centre SeehofTeltow/BerlinGermany
  2. 2.Department of Psychopathology and Clinical InterventionUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Bibliographic information