Proficiency-Based Progression Simulation Training: A To-Do List for Medicine

  • Anthony G. Gallagher
  • Gerald C. O’Sullivan
  • Gerald C. O’Sullivan
Part of the Improving Medical Outcome - Zero Tolerance book series (IMOZT)


Change has been the order of the day in medicine, but particularly in disciplines such as surgery. Surgery has changed the way it treats patients with interventions becoming less invasive but also becoming more difficult to learn and to practice. Sometimes these changes were patient driven. One of these changes, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) was introduced on a wave of enthusiasm in the early 1990s (Centres 1991). It was a disruptive technology and had unforeseen and wide-reaching implications and ramifications for the entire practice of medicine.


Virtual Reality Minimally Invasive Surgery Surgical Trainee Virtual Reality Simulation Deliberate Practice 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony G. Gallagher
    • 1
  • Gerald C. O’Sullivan
    • 2
  • Gerald C. O’Sullivan
    • 3
  1. 1.School of MedicineUniversity College CorkCorkIreland
  2. 2.Mercy University HospitalCorkIreland
  3. 3.Cork Cancer Research CentreUniversity College CorkCorkIreland

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