Advertisement

Respiratory Infection in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

  • D. R. O’Donnell
  • R. G. Branco
Chapter

Abstract

The respiratory system is the most frequently affected system in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admissions. Lower respiratory reserve in infants and children than in adults, and the close interaction of the respiratory system with other systems contribute to the high incidence of respiratory dysfunction. Infectious diseases are the most common cause of acute illness in children, and, respiratory infections account for a large proportion of acute PICU admissions. Worldwide acute respiratory infections (ARis) cause more deaths in children under 5 than do diarrhea, malaria, or HIV.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Williams BG, Gouws E, Boschi-Pinto C, Bruce J, Dye C. Estimates of world-wide distribution of child deaths from acute respiratory infections. Lancet Infect Dis 2002; 2(1):25–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kendig’s Disorders of the Respiratory Tract in Children, 7th ed. 2006 Elsevier Victor Chernick, MD, FRCP (C), Thomas F. Boat, MD, Robert W, Wilmott, MD and Andrew Bush, MD, FRCP, FRCPCH.Google Scholar

Pneumonia

  1. 1.
    Graat ME, Stoker J, Vroom MB, Schultz MJ. Can we abandon daily routine chest radiography in intensive care patients? J Intensive Care Med 2005;20(4):238–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tu CY, Hsu WH, Hsia TC, et al. Pleural effusions in febrile medical ICU patients: chest ultrasound study. Chest 2004;126:1274–1280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Miller WT Jr, Tino G, Friedburg JS. Thoracic CT in the intensive care unit: assessment of clinical usefulness. Radiology 1998;209:491–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boussekey N, Leroy O, Georges H, Devos P, d’Escrivan T, Guery B. Diagnostic and prognostic values of admission procalcitonin levels in community-acquired pneumonia in an intensive care unit. Infection 2005;33:257–263.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Luyt CE, Guerin V, Combes A, et al. Procalcitonin kinetics as a prognostic marker of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;171:48–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Light RW, Macgregor MI, Luchsinger PC, et al. Pleural effusions: the diagnostic separations of transudates and exudates. Ann Intern Med 1972;77(4):507–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

  1. 1.
    Carvalho CE, Berezin EN, Pistelli IP, Mimica L, Cardoso MR. Sequential microbiological monitoring of tracheal aspirates in intubated patients admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2005;81(1):29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chastre J, Fagon JY. Ventilator-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;165(7):867–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gauvin F, Dassa C, Chaibou M, Proulx F, Farrell CA, Lacroix J. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in intubated children: comparison of different diagnostic methods. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2003;4(4):437–443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burmester M, Mok Q. How safe is non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage in critically ill mechanically ventilated children? Intensive Care Med 2001;27(4):716–721.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fagon JY, Chastre J, Wolff M, et al. Invasive and noninvasive strategies for management of suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia. A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2000;132(8):621–630.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bush A. Bronchoscopy in paediatric intensive care. Paediatr Respir Rev 2003;4(1): 67–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Davies L, Dolgin S, Kattan M. Morbidity and mortality of open lung biopsy in children. Pediatrics 1997;99(5):660–664.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Luyt CE, Chastre J, Fagon JY. Value of the clinical pulmonary infection score for the identification and management of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Intensive Care Med 2004;30(5):844–852.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Singh N, Rogers P, Atwood CW, Wagener MM, Yu VL. Short-course empiric antibiotic therapy for patients with pulmonary infiltrates in the intensive care unit. A proposed solution for indiscriminate antibiotic prescription. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:505–511.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chastre J, Wolff M, Fagon JY, et al.; PneumA Trial Group. Comparison of 8 vs 15 days of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults: a randomized trial. JAMA 2003;290(19):2588–2598.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Empyema

  1. 1.
    Hippocrates. The book of Hippocrates. In: Adams F, ed. The Genuine Works of Hippocrates. London: C. and J. Adlard Printers, 1849.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schultz KD, Fan LL, Pinsky J, et al. The changing face of pleural empyemas in children: epidemiology and management. Pediatrics 2004;113(6):1735–1740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Henriques Normark B, Kalin M, Ortqvist A, et al. Dynamics of penicillin-susceptible clones in invasive pneumococcal disease. J Infect Dis 2001;184(7):861–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alfaro C, Fergie J, Purcell K. Emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in complicated parapneumonic effusions. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005;24(3):274–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buckingham SC, King MD, Miller ML. Incidence and etiologies of complicated parapneumonic effusions in children, 1996 to 2001. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003;22(6):499–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kyaw MH, Lynfield R, Schaffner W, et al.; Active Bacterial Core Surveillance of the Emerging Infections Program Network. Effect of introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. N Engl J Med 2006;354(14): 1455–1463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ramirez S, Hild TG, Rudolph CN, et al. Increased diagnosis of Lemierre syndrome and other Fusobacterium necrophorum infections at a Children’s Hospital. Pediatrics 2003;112(5):e380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Byington CL, Korgenski K, Daly J, Ampofo K, Pavia A, Mason EO. Impact of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal parapneumonic empyema. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006;25(3):250–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Balfour-Lynn IM, Abrahamson E, Cohen G, et al.; Paediatric Pleural Diseases Subcommittee of the BTS Standards of Care Committee. BTS guidelines for the management of pleural infection in children. Thorax 2005;60(suppll):11–21.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pierrepoint MJ, Evans A, Morris SJ, Harrison SK, Doull IJ. Pigtail catheter drain in the treatment of empyema thoracis. Arch Dis Child 2002;87(4):331–332.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Bronchiolitis

  1. 1.
    Arnold JH, Anas NG, Luckett P, et al. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in pediatric respiratory failure: a multicenter experience. Crit Care Med 2000; 28:3913–3919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bont L, van Vught AJ, Kimpen JL. Prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus in premature infants. Lancet 1999;354: 1003–1004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Buck JJ, Debenham P, Tasker RC. Prophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus infection: missing the target. Arch Dis Child 2001;84(4):375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    De PA, Davis PG, Faber B, Morley CJ. Devices and pressure sources for administration of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in preterm neonates (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;CD002977.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Green TP, Moler FW, Goodman DM. Probability of survival after prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in pediatric patients with acute respiratory failure. Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. Crit Care Med 1995;23:1132–1139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hall CB. Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1917–1928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Heilman CA, From the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the World Health Organization. Respiratory syncytial and parainfluenza viruses. J Infect Dis 1990;161:402–406.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jansson L, Nilsson P, Olsson M. Socioeconomic environmental factors and hospitalization for acute bronchiolitis during infancy. Acta Paediatr 2002;91:335–338.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kellner JD, Ohlsson A, Gadomski AM, Wang EE. Bronchodilators for bronchiolitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;CD001266.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Langley JM, Wang EE, Law BJ, et al. Economic evaluation of respiratory syncytial virus infection in Canadian children: a Pediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) study. J Pediatr 1997;131:113–117.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mazzella M, Bellini C, Calevo MG, et al. A randomised control study comparing the Infant Flow Driver with nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2001;85:F86–F90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Medbo S, Finne PH, Hansen TW. Respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia ventilated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Acta Paediatr 1997;86:766–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Meyer TA, Warner BW. Extracorporeallife support for the treatment of viral pneumonia: collective experience from the ELSO registry. Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. J Pediatr Surg 1997;32:232–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Muller-Pebody B, Edmunds WJ, Zambon MC, Gay NJ, Crowcroft NS. Contribution of RSV to bronchiolitis and pneumonia-associated hospitalizations in English children, April 1995–March 1998. Epidemiol Infect 2002;129:99–106.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Purcell K, Fergie J. Concurrent serious bacterial infections in 2396 infants and children hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infections. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002;156:322–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shay DK, Holman RC, Newman RD, Liu LL, Stout JW, Anderson LJ. Bronchiolitis-associated hospitalizations among US children, 1980–1996. JAMA 1999;282:1440–1446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ko JP, Shepard JA, Sproule MW, et al. CT manifestations of respiratory syncytial virus infection in lung transplant recipients. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2000;24(2):235–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Trasker RC, Gordon I, Kiff K. Time course of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection in mechanically ventilated infants. Acta Paediatr 2000;89(8):938–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nasr SZ, Strouse PJ, Soskolne E, et al. Efficacy of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I in the hospital management of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Chest 2001;120(1):203–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. R. O’Donnell
  • R. G. Branco

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations