Advertisement

Technoenergetic and Economic Analysis of CO2 Conversion

  • Suraj VasudevanEmail author
  • Shilpi Aggarwal
  • Shamsuzzaman Farooq
  • Iftekhar A. Karimi
  • Michael C. G. Quah
Chapter

Abstract

Mere improvements in energy efficiency and development of alternative energy sources may not be sufficient and timely to reverse the continuing rise of the CO2 emissions before it crosses dangerous levels. Given the mixed feelings on the geological sequestration of captured CO2 and the scale of worldwide CO2 emissions, the idea of utilizing CO2 to produce fuels and chemicals is receiving increasing attention as a potential long-term solution to this problem. The source of hydrogen is vital for producing fuels and chemicals from CO2. We consider both renewable (i.e., solar) and nonrenewable (i.e., fossil fuels) sources of hydrogen and identify several fuels and chemicals that can be produced from CO2 while meeting the hard constraint of net zero CO2 emission. Taking a small, geologically disadvantaged, and developed city-state of Singapore as an example, we analyze and compare thermodynamically feasible production of fuels/chemicals, whose global demands can make a significant dent in CO2 emissions. We also identify the hydrogen source and the cost at which it will make economic sense under various carbon tax regimes.

Notes

Acknowledgements

(1) This work is an extension of a project carried out by an NUS team for the Energy Technology Roadmapping exercise, partially supported by NCCS/NRF. (2) The authors would like to thank Professor Rakesh Agrawal (Purdue University) for the insightful discussions during the course of the roadmap development. (3) We dedicate this work to the late Professor Michael C.G. Quah who contributed immensely to this project. His dynamism, intellect, sense of humor, and laughter are greatly missed to this day.

References

  1. 1.
    Angelini A, Dibenedetto A, Fasciano S, Aresta M (2017) Synthesis of di-n-butyl carbonate from n-butanol: comparison of the direct carboxylation with butanolysis of urea by using recyclable heterogeneous catalysts. Catal Today 281:371–378Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aresta M (2016) ICCDU and JCOU: two different entities, one common goal. J CO2 Util. 15:3–5Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aresta M, Dibenedetto A, Angelini A (2013) The changing paradigm in CO2 utilization. J CO2 Util 3–4:65–73Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aresta M, Dibenedetto A, Dutta A (2017) Energy issues in the utilization of CO2 in the synthesis of chemicals: the case of the direct carboxylation of alcohols to dialkyl-carbonates. Catal Today 281:345–351Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ashok J, Ang M, Kawi S (2017) Enhanced activity of CO2 methanation over Ni/CeO2–ZrO2 catalysts: influence of preparation methods. Catal Today 281:304–311Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baasel WD (1990) Preliminary chemical engineering plant design, 2nd edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bajracharya S, Vanbroekhoven K, Buisman CJ, Pant D, Strik DP (2016) Application of gas diffusion biocathode in microbial electrosynthesis from carbon dioxide. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:22292–22308Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bonura G, Cannilla C, Frusteri L, Mezzapica A, Frusteri F (2017) DME production by CO2 hydrogenation: key factors affecting the behavior of CuZnZr/ferrierite catalysts. Catal Today 281:337–344Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carbon Capture and Storage/Utilization—Singapore Perspectives (2014) Technology Roadmap, National Climate Change Secretariat, Prime Minister’s Office Singapore, 2014Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cheah WY, Ling TC, Juan JC, Lee DJ, Chang JS, Show PL (2016) Biorefineries of carbon dioxide: from carbon capture and storage (CCS) to bioenergies production. Biores Technol 215:346–356Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen Q, Lv M, Tang Z, Wang H, Wei W, Sun Y (2016) Opportunities of integrated systems with CO2 utilization technologies for green fuel & chemicals production in a carbon-constrained society. J CO2 Util 14:1–9Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen X, Su X, Duan H, Liang B, Huang Y, Zhang T (2017) Catalytic performance of the Pt/TiO2 catalysts in reverse water gas shift reaction: controlled product selectivity and a mechanism study. Catal Today 281:312–318Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chiuta S, Engelbrecht N, Human G, Bessarabov DG (2016) Techno-economic assessment of power-to-methane and power-to-syngas business models for sustainable carbon dioxide utilization in coal-to-liquid facilities. J CO2 Util 16:399–411Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Choi YC, Jang YJ, Park H, Kim WY, Lee YH, Choi SH, Lee JS (2017) Carbon dioxide Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: a new path to carbon-neutral fuels. Appl Catal B 202:605–610Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    da Silva RJ, Pimentel AF, Monteiro RS, Mota CJ (2016) Synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether from the CO2 hydrogenation over Cu-ZnO supported on Al2O3 and Nb2O5. J CO2 Util 15:83–88Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dibenedetto A, Colucci A, Aresta M (2016) The need to implement an efficient biomass fractionation and full utilization based on the concept of “biorefinery” for a viable economic utilization of microalgae. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:22274–22283Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dutta A, Farooq S, Karimi IA, Khan SA (2017) Assessing the potential of CO2 utilization with an integrated framework for producing power and chemicals. J CO2 Util 19:49–57Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Duyar MS, Wang S, Arellano-Treviño MA, Farrauto RJ (2016) CO2 utilization with a novel dual function material (DFM) for capture and catalytic conversion to synthetic natural gas: an update. J CO2 Util 15:65–71Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    ElMekawy A, Hegab HM, Mohanakrishna G, Elbaz AF, Bulut M, Pant D (2016) Technological advances in CO2 conversion electro-biorefinery: a step toward commercialization. Biores Technol 215:357–370Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fukai I, Mishra S, Moody MA (2016) Economic analysis of CO2-enhanced oil recovery in Ohio: implications for carbon capture, utilization, and storage in the Appalachian Basin region. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 52:357–377Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gai S, Yu J, Yu H, Eagle J, Zhao H, Lucas J, Doroodchi E, Moghtaderi B (2016) Process simulation of a near-zero-carbon-emission power plant using CO2 as the renewable energy storage medium. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 47:240–249Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gao X, Tan Z, Hidajat K, Kawi S (2017) Highly reactive Ni–Co/SiO2 bimetallic catalyst via complexation with oleylamine/oleic acid organic pair for dry reforming of methane. Catal Today 281:250–258Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Georgopoulou C, Jain S, Agarwal A, Rode E, Dimopoulos G, Sridhar N, Kakalis N (2016) On the modelling of multidisciplinary electrochemical systems with application on the electrochemical conversion of CO2 to formate/formic acid. Comp Chem Eng 93:160–170Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goyal N, Zhou Z, Karimi IA (2016) Metabolic processes of Methanococcus maripaludis and potential applications. Microb Cell Fact 15:107PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Horváth É, Baán K, Varga E, Oszkó A, Vágó Á, Töro M, Erdohelyi A (2017) Dry reforming of CH4 on Co/Al2O3 catalysts reduced at different temperatures. Catal Today 281:233–240Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Huang X, Ji C, Wang C, Xiao F, Zhao N, Sun N, Wei W, Sun Y (2017) Ordered mesoporous CoO–NiO–Al2O3 bimetallic catalysts with dual confinement effects for CO2 reforming of CH4. Catal Today 281:241–249Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Konig DH, Baucks N, Dietrich RU, Worner A (2015) Simulation and evaluation of a process concept for the generation of synthetic fuel from CO2 and H2. Energy 91:833–841Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kourkoumpas DS, Papadimou E, Atsonios K, Karellas S, Grammelis P, Karellas E (2016) Implementation of the power to Methanol concept by using CO2 from lignite power plants: techno-economic investigation. Int J Hydrogen Energy 41:16674–16687Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kuo PC, Wu W (2016) Thermodynamic analysis of a combined heat and power system with CO2 utilization based on co-gasification of biomass and coal. Chem Eng Sci 142:201–214Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Li P, Pan SY, Pei S, Yupo Lin J, Chiang PC (2016) Challenges and perspectives on carbon fixation and utilization technologies: an overview. Aerosol Air Qual Res 16:1327–1344Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liang B, Duan H, Su X, Chen X, Huang Y, Chen X, Delgado JJ, Zhang T (2017) Promoting role of potassium in the reverse water gas shift reaction on Pt/mullite catalyst. Catal Today 281:319–326Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lu X, Dennis Leung YC, Wang H, Maroto-Valer MM, Xuan J (2016) A pH-differential dual-electrolyte microfluidic electrochemical cells for CO2 utilization. Renewable Energy 95:277–285Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Luu MT, Milani D, Abbas A (2016) Analysis of CO2 utilization for methanol synthesis integrated with enhanced gas recovery. J Clean Prod 112:3540–3554Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Matzen M, Demirel Y (2016) Methanol and dimethyl ether from renewable hydrogen and carbon dioxide: Alternative fuels production and life-cycle assessment. J Clean Prod 139:1068–1077Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Merino-Garcia I, Alvarez-Guerra E, Albo J, Irabien A (2016) Electrochemical membrane reactors for the utilisation of carbon dioxide. Chem Eng J 305:104–120Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Meylan FD, Moreau V, Erkman S (2015) CO2 utilization in the perspective of industrial ecology, an overview. J CO2 Util 12:101–108Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mondal K, Sasmal S, Badgandi S, Chowdhury DR, Nair V (2016) Dry reforming of methane to syngas: a potential alternative process for value added chemicals—a technoeconomic perspective. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:22267–22273Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Morales Mora MA, Vergara CP, Leiva MA, Delgadillo SAM, Rosa-Domínguez ER (2016) Life cycle assessment of carbon capture and utilization from ammonia process in Mexico. J Environ Manage 183:998–1008Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Naims H (2016) Economics of carbon dioxide capture and utilization—a supply and demand perspective. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:22226–22241Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Oemar U, Hidajat K, Kawi S (2017) High catalytic stability of Pd–Ni/Y2O3 formed by interfacial Cl for oxy-CO2 reforming of CH4. Catal Today 281:276–294Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Oh ST, Martin A (2016) Thermodynamic efficiency of carbon capture and utilisation in anaerobic batch digestion process. J CO2 Util 16:182–193Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Olah GA, Goeppert A, Surya Prakash GK (2009) Chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether: from greenhouse gas to renewable, environmentally carbon neutral fuels and synthetic hydrocarbons. J Org Chem 74:487–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Otto A, Grube T, Schiebahn S, Stolten D (2015) Closing the loop: captured CO2 as a feedstock in the chemical industry. Energy Environ Sci 8:3283–3297Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pérez-Fortes M, Schöneberger JC, Boulamanti A, Tzimas E (2016) Methanol synthesis using captured CO2 as raw material: techno-economic and environmental assessment. Appl Energy 161:718–732Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pérez-Fortes M, Schöneberger JC, Boulamanti A, Harrison G, Tzimas E (2016) Formic acid synthesis using CO2 as raw material: techno-economic and environmental evaluation and market potential. Int J Hydrogen Energy 41:16444–16462Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Piña J, Borio DO (2006) Modeling and simulation of an autothermal reformer. Latin Am Appl Res 36:289–294Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rebecca Khoo SH, Luo HK, Braunstein P, Andy Hor TS (2015) Transformation of CO2 to value-added materials. J Mol Eng Mater 3(1540007):12Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Roh K, Lee JH, Gani R (2016) A methodological framework for the development of feasible CO2 conversion processes. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 47:250–265Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schakel W, Oreggioni G, Singh B, Strømman A, Ramírez A (2016) Assessing the techno-environmental performance of CO2 utilization via dry reforming of methane for the production of dimethyl ether. J CO2 Util 16:138–149Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Roadmap for Singapore (2014) (A summary) Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sovacool BJ (2008) Energy Policy 36:2940–2953Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tapia JFD, Lee JY, Raymond Ooi EH, Dominic Foo CY, Raymond Tan R (2016) Optimal CO2 allocation and scheduling in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. Appl Energy 184:337–345Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wang L, Ammar M, He P, Li Y, Cao Y, Li F, Han X, Li H (2017) The efficient synthesis of diethyl carbonate via coupling reaction from propylene oxide, CO2 and ethanol over binary PVEImBr/MgO catalyst. Catal Today 281:360–370Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wang C, Sun N, Zhao N, Wei W, Zhao Y (2017) Template-free preparation of bimetallic mesoporous Ni–Co–CaO–ZrO2 catalysts and their synergetic effect in dry reforming of methane. Catal Today 281:268–275Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wang F, Xu L, Yang J, Zhang J, Zhang L, Li H, Zhao Y, Li HX, Wu K, Xu GQ (2017) Enhanced catalytic performance of Ir catalysts supported on ceria-based solid solutions for methane dry reforming reaction. Catal Today 281:295–303Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wiesberg IL, de Medeiros JL, Alves RMB, Coutinho PLA, Araújo OQF (2016) Carbon dioxide management by chemical conversion to methanol: hydrogenation and Bi-reforming. Energy Convers Manag 125:320–335Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wilson MH, Mohler DT, Groppo JG, Grubbs T, Kesner S, Frazar EM, Shea A, Crofcheck C, Crocker M (2016) Capture and recycle of industrial CO2 emissions using microalgae. Appl Petrochem Res 6:279–293Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wu K, Birgersson E, Kim B, Kenis Paul JA, Karimi IA (2015) Modeling and experimental validation of electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO in a microfluidic cell. J Electrochem Soc 162:F23–F32Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Xiao S, Zhang Y, Gao P, Zhong L, Li X, Zhang Z, Wang H, Wei W, Sun Y (2017) Highly efficient Cu-based catalysts via hydrotalcite-like precursors for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol. Catal Today 281:327–336Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Yadav A, Choudhary P, Atri N, Teir S, Mutnuri S (2016) Pilot project at Hazira, India, for capture of carbon dioxide and its biofixation using microalgae. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:22284–22291Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yao L, Wang Y, Shi J, Xu H, Shen W, Hu C (2017) The influence of reduction temperature on the performance of ZrOx/Ni-MnOx/SiO2 catalyst for low-temperature CO2 reforming of methane. Catal Today 281:259–267Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zhang Y, Zhong L, Wang H, Gao P, Li X, Xiao S, Ding G, Wei W, Sun Y (2016) Catalytic performance of spray-dried Cu/ZnO/Al2O3/ZrO2 catalysts for slurry methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation. J CO2 Util 15:72–82Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suraj Vasudevan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shilpi Aggarwal
    • 1
  • Shamsuzzaman Farooq
    • 1
  • Iftekhar A. Karimi
    • 1
  • Michael C. G. Quah
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical & Biomolecular EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations