Advertisement

Hypertensive Crises

  • Benjamin B. Kenigsberg
  • Christopher F. BarnettEmail author
Chapter
  • 4 Downloads

Abstract

Hypertensive crisis is a common medical emergency involving organ damage in the setting of uncontrolled hypertension. The degree of organ damage does not correlate directly with the degree of blood pressure elevation. Prompt treatment with intravenous anti-hypertensive medications is essential to management.

Keywords

Hypertension Hypertensive urgency Hypertensive emergency Hypertensive crisis Malignant hypertension Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) Hypertensive encephalopathy Flash pulmonary edema Acute renal failure 

References

  1. 1.
    Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Hypertension. 2018;71(6):1269–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy. Hypertension in pregnancy. Report of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Task Force on hypertension in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(5):1122–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sinclair AJ, Burdon MA, Nightingale PG, et al. Rating papilloedema: an evaluation of the Frisén classification in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. J Neurol. 2012;259(7):1406–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kimberly HH, Shah S, et al. Correlation of optic nerve sheath diameter with direct measurement of intracranial pressure. Acad Emerg Med. 2008;15:201–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Servillo G, Bifulco F, De Robertis E, et al. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in intensive care medicine. Intensive Care Med. 2007;33(2):230–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hart GR, Anderson RJ. Withdrawal syndromes and the cessation of anti-hypertensive therapy. Arch Intern Med. 1981;141:1125–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Patel KK, Young L, Howell EH, et al. Characteristics and outcomes of patients presenting with hypertensive urgency in the office setting. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(7):981–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Powers WJ, Rabinstein AA, Ackerson T, American Heart Association Stroke Council, et al. 2018 Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2018;49(3):e46–e110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hemphill JC 3rd, Greenberg SM, Anderson CS, American Heart Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology, et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2015;46(7):2032–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fanari Z, Kennedy KK, Lim MJ, et al. Comparison of in-hospital outcomes for beta-blocker use versus non-beta blocker use in patients presenting with cocaine-associated chest pain. Am J Cardiol. 2014;113(11):1802–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Elliot WJ, Weber RR, Roy F, Nelson KS, Oliner CM, Fumo MT, Gretler D, Mccray G, Murphy MB. Renal and hemodynamic effects of fenoldopam versus nitroprusside in severe hypertension. Circulation. 1990;81:970–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sharma C, Soni A, Gupta A, et al. Hydralazine vs nifedipine for acute hypertensive emergency in pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;217(6):687.e1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Börgel J, Springer S, Ghafoor J, et al. Unrecognized secondary causes of hypertension in patients with hypertensive urgency/emergency: prevalence and co-prevalence. Clin Res Cardiol. 2010;99(8):499–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rimoldi SF, Scherrer U, Messerli FH. Secondary arterial hypertension: when, who, and how to screen? Eur Heart J. 2014;35(19):1245–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin B. Kenigsberg
    • 1
  • Christopher F. Barnett
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.MedStar Heart and Vascular InstituteMedStar Washington Hospital CenterWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations