Advertisement

Liver

  • Benjamin M. KozakEmail author
  • Amirkasra Mojtahed
  • Michael S. Gee
Chapter
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is now commonly used in pediatric patients to evaluate focal and diffuse hepatic disorders. Various MR imaging techniques can greatly improve lesion detection and characterization compared to other imaging modalities without potentially harmful ionizing radiation exposure. In recent years, other technical advances have also helped minimize MR imaging acquisition time and motion-related image degradation. This chapter reviews clinically important concepts related to up-to-date hepatic MR imaging techniques, hepatic embryology, normal development, and anatomic variants as well as MR imaging findings in a spectrum of congenital and acquired hepatic disorders. In addition, preoperative assessment and postoperative complications of liver transplantation in the pediatric population are also discussed.

Keywords

Liver Hepatic Cirrhosis Steatosis Hemochromatosis Hepatitis Hepatoblastoma Focal nodular hyperplasia Adenoma 

References

  1. 1.
    Gandhi SN, Brown MA, Wong JG, Aguirre DA, Sirlin CB. MR contrast agents for liver imaging: what, when, how. Radiographics. 2006;26(6):1621–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gale EM, Caravan P, Rao AG, McDonald RJ, Winfeld M, Fleck RJ, et al. Gadolinium-based contrast agents in pediatric magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 2017;47(5):507–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kuwatsuru R, Kadoya M, Ohtomo K, Tanimoto A, Hirohashi S, Murakami T, et al. Comparison of gadobenate dimeglumine with gadopentetate dimeglumine for magnetic resonance imaging of liver tumors. Investig Radiol. 2001;36(11):632–41.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Huppertz A, Haraida S, Kraus A, Zech CJ, Scheidler J, Breuer J, et al. Enhancement of focal liver lesions at gadoxetic acid–enhanced MR imaging: correlation with histopathologic findings and spiral CT--initial observations. Radiology. 2005;234(2):468–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grazioli L, Morana G, Kirchin MA, Schneider G. Accurate differentiation of focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatic adenoma at gadobenate dimeglumine–enhanced MR imaging: prospective study. Radiology. 2005;236(1):166–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grazioli L, Bondioni MP, Haradome H, Motosugi U, Tinti R, Frittoli B, et al. Hepatocellular adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia: value of gadoxetic acid–enhanced MR imaging in differential diagnosis. Radiology. 2012;262(2):520–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chavhan GB, Mann E, Kamath BM, Babyn PS. Gadobenate-dimeglumine-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for hepatic lesions in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2014;44(10):1266–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Meyers AB, Towbin AJ, Serai S, Geller JI, Podberesky DJ. Characterization of pediatric liver lesions with gadoxetate disodium. Pediatr Radiol. 2011;41(9):1183–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rozenfeld MN, Podberesky DJ. Gadolinium-based contrast agents in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2018;48(9):1188–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schneider G, Schürholz H, Kirchin MA, Bücker A, Fries P. Safety and adverse effects during 24 hours after contrast-enhanced MRI with gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2013;43(2):202–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ma X, Holalkere N-S, R AK, Mino-Kenudson M, Hahn PF, Sahani DV. Imaging-based quantification of hepatic fat: methods and clinical applications. Radiographics. 2009;29(5):1253–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dixon WT. Simple proton spectroscopic imaging. Radiology. 1984;153(1):189–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Glover GH. Multipoint Dixon technique for water and fat proton and susceptibility imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1991;1(5):521–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Idilman IS, Aniktar H, Idilman R, Kabacam G, Savas B, Elhan A, et al. Hepatic steatosis: quantification by proton density fat fraction with MR imaging versus liver biopsy. Radiology. 2013;267(3):767–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reeder SB, Cruite I, Hamilton G, Sirlin CB. Quantitative assessment of liver fat with magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2011;34(4):729–49.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bley TA, Wieben O, François CJ, Brittain JH, Reeder SB. Fat and water magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2010;31(1):4–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hernando D, Levin YS, Sirlin CB, Reeder SB. Quantification of liver iron with MRI: state of the art and remaining challenges. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2014;40(5):1003–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sharma SD, Artz NS, Hernando D, Horng DE, Reeder SB. Improving chemical shift encoded water-fat separation using object-based information of the magnetic field inhomogeneity. Magn Reson Med. 2015;73(2):597–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mitchell DG, Cohen M. MRI principles. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2004.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Labranche R, Gilbert G, Cerny M, Vu K-N, Soulières D, Olivié D, et al. Liver iron quantification with MR imaging: a primer for radiologists. Radiographics. 2018;38(2):392–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wood JC, Enriquez C, Ghugre N, Tyzka JM, Carson S, Nelson MD, et al. MRI R2 and R2* mapping accurately estimates hepatic iron concentration in transfusion-dependent thalassemia and sickle cell disease patients. Blood. 2005;106(4):1460–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Serai SD, Fleck RJ, Quinn CT, Zhang B, Podberesky DJ. Retrospective comparison of gradient recalled echo R2* and spin-echo R2 magnetic resonance analysis methods for estimating liver iron content in children and adolescents. Pediatr Radiol. 2015;45(11):1629–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Srinivasa Babu A, Wells ML, Teytelboym OM, Mackey JE, Miller FH, Yeh BM, et al. Elastography in chronic liver disease: modalities, techniques, limitations, and future directions. Radiographics. 2016;36(7):1987–2006.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Venkatesh SK, Yin M, Ehman RL. Magnetic resonance elastography of liver: technique, analysis, and clinical applications. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013;37(3):544–55.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Singh S, Venkatesh SK, Wang Z, Miller FH, Motosugi U, Low RN, et al. Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance elastography in staging liver fibrosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;13(3):440–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pipe JG. Motion correction with PROPELLER MRI: application to head motion and free-breathing cardiac imaging. Magn Reson Med. 1999;42(5):963–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jaimes C, Kirsch JE, Gee MS. Fast, free-breathing and motion-minimized techniques for pediatric body magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 2018;48(9):1197–208.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chandarana H, Block KT, Winfeld MJ, Lala SV, Mazori D, Giuffrida E, et al. Free-breathing contrast-enhanced T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging with radial k-space sampling for paediatric abdominopelvic MRI. Eur Radiol. 2014;24(2):320–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    McPherson AM, Anthony EY. Embryology, anatomy, and normal findings. In: Coley BD, Dillman JR, Frush DP, Hernanz-Schulman M, Hutchison LH, Khanna G, et al., editors. Caffey’s pediatric diagnostic imaging. 13th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2019. p. 751–60.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Parker B, Blickman JG. Accessory organs of digestion. In: Blickman JG, Parker BR, Barnes PD, editors. Pediatric radiology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier; 2009. p. 103–20.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Majno P, Mentha G, Toso C, Morel P, Peitgen HO, Fasel JHD. Anatomy of the liver: an outline with three levels of complexity—a further step towards tailored territorial liver resections. J Hepatol. 2014;60(3):654–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chavhan GB, Shelmerdine S, Jhaveri K, Babyn PS. Liver MR imaging in children: current concepts and technique. Radiographics. 2016;36(5):1517–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Piñeiro-Carrero VM, Piñeiro EO. Liver. Pediatrics. 2004;113(4 Suppl):1097–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yano K, Ohtsubo M, Mizota T, Kato H, Hayashida Y, Morita S, et al. Riedel’s lobe of the liver evaluated by multiple imaging modalities. Intern Med. 2000;39(2):136–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chen Y-Y, Huang T-W, Chang H, Hsu H-H, Lee S-C. Intrathoracic caudate lobe of the liver: a case report and literature review. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(17):5147–52.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chavhan GB. Congenital hepatobiliary anomalies. In: Coley BD, Dillman JR, Frush DP, Hernanz-Schulman M, Hutchison LH, Khanna G, et al., editors. Caffey’s pediatric diagnostic imaging. 13th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2019. p. 810–5.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Subramaniam P, Knisely A, Portmann B, Qureshi S, Aclimandos W, Karani J, et al. Diagnosis of Alagille syndrome—25 years of experience at Kingʼs College Hospital. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011;52(1):84–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Han S, Jeon TY, Hwang SM, Yoo S-Y, Choe YH, Lee S-K, et al. Imaging findings of Alagille syndrome in young infants: differentiation from biliary atresia. Br J Radiol. 2017;90(1077):20170406.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Venkatanarasimha N, Thomas R, Armstrong EM, Shirley JF, Fox BM, Jackson SA. Imaging features of ductal plate malformations in adults. Clin Radiol. 2011;66(11):1086–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Brancatelli G, Federle MP, Vilgrain V, Vullierme M-P, Marin D, Lagalla R. Fibropolycystic liver disease: CT and MR imaging findings. Radiographics. 2005;25(3):659–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zeitoun D, Brancatelli G, Colombat M, Federle MP, Valla D, Wu T, et al. Congenital hepatic fibrosis: CT findings in 18 adults. Radiology. 2004;231(1):109–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hilmes MA. Infectious causes of liver disease. In: Coley BD, Dillman JR, Frush DP, Hernanz-Schulman M, Hutchison LH, Khanna G, et al., editors. Caffey’s pediatric diagnostic imaging. 13th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2019. p. 830–7.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ganem D, Prince AM. Hepatitis B virus infection--natural history and clinical consequences. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(11):1118–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hu K-Q, Tong MJ. The long-term outcomes of patients with compensated hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis and history of parenteral exposure in the United States. Hepatology. 1999;29(4):1311–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Faria SC, Mazhar SM, Peterson MR, Shiehmorteza M, Sirlin CB. Hepatitis. In: Sahani DV, Samir AE, editors. Abdominal imaging. Maryland Heights MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. p. 641–53.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Huang CJ, Pitt HA, Lipsett PA, Osterman FA, Lillemoe KD, Cameron JL, et al. Pyogenic hepatic abscess. Changing trends over 42 years. Ann Surg. 1996;223(5):600–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bächler P, Baladron MJ, Menias C, Beddings I, Loch R, Zalaquett E, et al. Multimodality imaging of liver infections: differential diagnosis and potential pitfalls. Radiographics. 2016;36(4):1001–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chan JH, Tsui EY, Luk SH, Fung AS, Yuen MK, Szeto ML, et al. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the liver: distinguishing hepatic abscess from cystic or necrotic tumor. Abdom Imaging. 2001;26(2):161–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Semelka RC, Kelekis NL, Sallah S, Worawattanakul S, Ascher SM. Hepatosplenic fungal disease: diagnostic accuracy and spectrum of appearances on MR imaging. Am J Roentgenol. 1997;169(5):1311–6.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Radin D, Ralls P, Colletti P, Halls J. CT of amebic liver abscess. Am J Roentgenol. 1988;150(6):1297–301.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Elizondo G, Weissleder R, Stark DD, Todd LE, Compton C, Wittenberg J, et al. Amebic liver abscess: diagnosis and treatment evaluation with MR imaging. Radiology. 1987;165(3):795–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mortelé KJ, Segatto E, Ros PR. The infected liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2004;24(4):937–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mazhar SM, Stein LL, Faria SC, Peterson MR, Sirlin CB. Hepatic storage disorders. In: Sahani DV, Samir AE, editors. Abdominal imaging. Maryland Heights MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. p. 630–40.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rake J, Visser G, Labrune P, Leonard J, Ullrich K, Smit P. Glycogen storage disease type I: diagnosis, management, clinical course and outcome. Results of the European Study on Glycogen Storage Disease Type I (ESGSD I). Eur J Pediatr. 2002;161(Suppl 1):S20–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Howell RR, Stevenson RE, Ben-Menachem Y, Phyliky RL, Berry DH. Hepatic adenomata with type 1 glycogen storage disease. JAMA. 1976;236(13):1481–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Limmer J, Fleig WE, Leupold D, Bittner R, Ditschuneit H, Berger H-G. Hepatocellular carcinoma in type I glycogen storage disease. Hepatology. 1988;8(3):531–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Grabowski GA, Andria G, Baldellou A, Campbell PE, Charrow J, Cohen IJ, et al. Pediatric non-neuronopathic Gaucher disease: presentation, diagnosis and assessment. Consensus statements. Eur J Pediatr. 2004;163(2):58–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Simpson WL, Hermann G, Balwani M. Imaging of Gaucher disease. World J Radiol. 2014;6(9):657–68.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cox M, Epelman M, Podberesky DJ. Parenchymal liver disease. In: Coley BD, Dillman JR, Frush DP, Hernanz-Schulman M, Hutchison LH, Khanna G, et al., editors. Caffey’s pediatric diagnostic imaging. 13th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2019. p. 822–9.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Morcos M, Dubois S, Bralet M-P, Belghiti J, Degott C, Terris B. Primary liver carcinoma in genetic hemochromatosis reveals a broad histologic spectrum. Am J Clin Pathol. 2001;116(5):738–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Patton HM, Mazhar SM, Peterson MR, Hanna R, Ganesan K, Sirlin CB. Hepatic iron overload. In: Sahani DV, Samir AE, editors. Abdominal imaging. Maryland Heights MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. p. 621–9.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schwimmer JB, Behling C, Newbury R, Deutsch R, Nievergelt C, Schork NJ, et al. Histopathology of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2005;42(3):641–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mazhar SM, Patton HM, Scuderi RT, Yokoo T, Faria SC, Sirlin CB. Fatty liver disease. In: Sahani DV, Samir AE, editors. Abdominal imaging. Maryland Heights MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. p. 595–606.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Pinto RB, Schneider ACR, da Silveira TR. Cirrhosis in children and adolescents: an overview. World J Hepatol. 2015;7(3):392–405.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hussain SM, Zondervan PE, IJzermans JNM, Schalm SW, de Man RA, Krestin GP. Benign versus malignant hepatic nodules: MR imaging findings with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2002;22(5):1023–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Restrepo R, Palani R, Cervantes LF, Duarte AM, Amjad I, Altman NR. Hemangiomas revisited: the useful, the unusual and the new. Pediatr Radiol. 2011;41(7):895–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kulungowski AM, Alomari AI, Chawla A, Christison-Lagay ER, Fishman SJ. Lessons from a liver hemangioma registry: subtype classification. J Pediatr Surg. 2012;47(1):165–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chung EM, Cube R, Lewis RB, Conran RM. From the archives of the AFIP: Pediatric liver masses: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Part 1. Benign tumors. Radiographics. 2010;30(3):801–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kassarjian A, Zurakowski D, Dubois J, Paltiel HJ, Fishman SJ, Burrows PE. Infantile hepatic hemangiomas: clinical and imaging findings and their correlation with therapy. Am J Roentgenol. 2004;182(3):785–95.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Stocker JT. Hepatic tumors in children. Clin Liver Dis. 2001;5(1):259–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dubois J, Ditchfield M. Neoplasia. In: Coley BD, Dillman JR, Frush DP, Hernanz-Schulman M, Hutchison LH, Khanna G, et al., editors. Caffey’s pediatric diagnostic imaging. 13th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2019. p. 838–50.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Meyers RL. Tumors of the liver in children. Surg Oncol. 2007;16(3):195–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Smith EA, Salisbury S, Martin R, Towbin AJ. Incidence and etiology of new liver lesions in pediatric patients previously treated for malignancy. Am J Roentgenol. 2012;199(1):186–91.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Dharmana H, Saravana-Bawan S, Girgis S, Low G. Hepatocellular adenoma: imaging review of the various molecular subtypes. Clin Radiol. 2017;72(4):276–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Grazioli L, Olivetti L, Mazza G, Bondioni MP. MR imaging of hepatocellular adenomas and differential diagnosis dilemma. Int J Hepatol. 2013;2013:374170.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cha I, Cartwright D, Guis M, Miller TR, Ferrell LD. Angiomyolipoma of the liver in fine-needle aspiration biopsies: its distinction from hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer. 1999;87(1):25–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lee SJ, Kim SY, Kim KW, Kim JH, Kim HJ, Lee MG, et al. Hepatic angiomyolipoma versus hepatocellular carcinoma in the noncirrhotic liver on gadoxetic acid–enhanced MRI: a diagnostic challenge. Am J Roentgenol. 2016;207(3):562–70.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Casillas C, Martí-Bonmatí L, Galant J. Pseudotumoral presentation of nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver: imaging in five patients including MR imaging. Eur Radiol. 1997;7(5):654–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Dachman A, Ros P, Goodman Z, Olmsted W, Ishak K. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver: clinical and radiologic observations. Am J Roentgenol. 1987;148(4):717–22.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ishak KG, Goodman ZD, Stocker J. Tumors of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts. Washington, D.C: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 2001.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Chung EM, Lattin GE, Cube R, Lewis RB, Marichal-Hernández C, Shawhan R, et al. From the archives of the AFIP: Pediatric liver masses: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Part 2. Malignant tumors. Radiographics. 2011;31(2):483–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Shelmerdine SC, Roebuck DJ, Towbin AJ, McHugh K. MRI of paediatric liver tumours: how we review and report. Cancer Imaging. 2016;16(1):21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Towbin AJ, Meyers RL, Woodley H, Miyazaki O, Weldon CB, Morland B, et al. 2017 PRETEXT: radiologic staging system for primary hepatic malignancies of childhood revised for the Paediatric Hepatic International Tumour Trial (PHITT). Pediatr Radiol. 2018;48(4):536–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Siegel MJ, Chung EM, Conran RM. Pediatric liver: focal masses. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2008;16(3):437–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Cruite I, Schroeder M, Merkle EM, Sirlin CB. Gadoxetate disodium–enhanced MRI of the liver: part 2. Protocol optimization and lesion appearance in the cirrhotic liver. Am J Roentgenol. 2010;195(1):29–41.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Torbenson M. Review of the clinicopathologic features of fibrolamellar carcinoma. Adv Anat Pathol. 2007;14(3):217–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Liu S, Chan KW, Wang B, Qiao L. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104(10):2617–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hegde SV, Dillman JR, Lopez MJ, Strouse PJ. Imaging of multifocal liver lesions in children and adolescents. Cancer Imaging. 2013;12:516–29.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Buetow PC, Buck JL, Pantongrag-Brown L, Marshall WH, Ros PR, Levine MS, et al. Undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver: pathologic basis of imaging findings in 28 cases. Radiology. 1997;203(3):779–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Yoon W, Kim JK, Kang HK. Hepatic undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma: MR findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1997;21(1):100–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Plessier A, Valla DC. Budd-Chiari syndrome. Semin Liver Dis. 2008;28(3):259–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cura M, Haskal Z, Lopera J. Diagnostic and interventional radiology for Budd-Chiari syndrome. Radiographics. 2009;29(3):669–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Darwish Murad S, Plessier A, Hernandez-Guerra M, Fabris F, Eapen CE, Bahr MJ, et al. EN-Vie (European network for vascular disorders of the liver). Etiology, management, and outcome of the Budd-Chiari syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(3):167–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Brancatelli G, Vilgrain V, Federle MP, Hakime A, Lagalla R, Iannaccone R, et al. Budd-Chiari syndrome: spectrum of imaging findings. Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188(2):W168–76. Review.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rivard DC, Bacon PN. Vascular abnormalities of the liver. In: Coley BD, Dillman JR, Frush DP, Hernanz-Schulman M, Hutchison LH, Khanna G, et al., editors. Caffey’s pediatric diagnostic imaging. 13th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2019. p. 851–61.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mortelé KJ, Van Vlierberghe H, Wiesner W, Ros PR. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease: MRI findings. Abdom Imaging. 2002;27(5):523–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    van den Bosch MA, van Hoe L. MR imaging findings in two patients with hepatic veno-occlusive disease following bone marrow transplantation. Eur Radiol. 2000;10(8):1290–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vogel CB. Pediatric portal hypertension. Nurse Pract. 2017;42(5):35–42.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gallego C, Velasco M, Marcuello P, Tejedor D, De Campo L, Friera A. Congenital and acquired anomalies of the portal venous system. Radiographics. 2002;22(1):141–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Squires RH, Ng V, Romero R, Ekong U, Hardikar W, Emre S, Mazariegos GV, American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American Society of Transplantation, North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Evaluation of the pediatric patient for liver transplantation: 2014 practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American Society of Transplantation and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Hepatology. 2014;60(1):362–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Horvat N, Marcelino ASZ, Horvat JV, Yamanari TR, Batista Araújo-Filho JDA, Panizza P, et al. Pediatric liver transplant: techniques and complications. Radiographics. 2017;37(6):1612–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rivard DC, Khanna G. Liver transplantation in children. In: Coley BD, Dillman JR, Frush DP, Hernanz-Schulman M, Hutchison LH, Khanna G, et al., editors. Caffey’s pediatric diagnostic imaging. 13th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2019. p. 862–72.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Goldstein MJ, Salame E, Kapur S, Kinkhabwala M, LaPointe-Rudow D, Harren P, et al. Analysis of failure in living donor liver transplantation: differential outcomes in children and adults. World J Surg. 2003;27(3):356–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Seda-Neto J, Antunes da Fonseca E, Pugliese R, Candido HL, Benavides MR, Carballo Afonso R, et al. Twenty years of experience in pediatric living donor liver transplantation. Transplantation. 2016;100(5):1066–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Berrocal T, Parrón M, Álvarez-Luque A, Prieto C, Santamaría ML. Pediatric liver transplantation: a pictorial essay of early and late complications. Radiographics. 2006;26(4):1187–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Caiado AHM, Blasbalg R, Marcelino ASZ, da Cunha Pinho M, Chammas MC, da Costa Leite C, et al. Complications of liver transplantation: multimodality imaging approach. Radiographics. 2007;27(5):1401–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Singh AK, Nachiappan AC, Verma HA, Uppot RN, Blake MA, Saini S, et al. Postoperative imaging in liver transplantation: what radiologists should know. Radiographics. 2010;30(2):339–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Starzl TE, Putnam CW, Hansbrough JF, Porter KA, Reid HA. Biliary complications after liver transplantation: with special reference to the biliary cast syndrome and techniques of secondary duct repair. Surgery. 1977;81(2):212–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Shah JN, Haigh WG, Lee SP, Lucey MR, Brensinger CM, Kochman ML, et al. Biliary casts after orthotopic liver transplantation: clinical factors, treatment, biochemical analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98(8):1861–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Jain A, Nalesnik M, Reyes J, Pokharna R, Mazariegos G, Green M, et al. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders in liver transplantation: a 20-year experience. Ann Surg. 2002;236(4):429–36.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    George TI, Jeng M, Berquist W, Cherry AM, Link MP, Arber DA. Epstein-Barr virus-associated peripheral T-cell lymphoma and hemophagocytic syndrome arising after liver transplantation: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2005;44(3):270–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Camacho JC, Moreno CC, Harri PA, Aguirre DA, Torres WE, Mittal PK. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease: proposed imaging classification. Radiographics. 2014;34(7):2025–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin M. Kozak
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amirkasra Mojtahed
    • 2
  • Michael S. Gee
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric Imaging, Department of RadiologyMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Division of Pediatric Imaging, Department of RadiologyMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations