The Thyroid-Oxidative Stress Axis in Heart Failure
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Increased or reduced action of thyroid hormones (THs), both hyper- and hypothyroidism, may have relevant cardiovascular effects, which include regulation of cardiac contractility and heart rate, diastolic function, and systemic vascular resistance, thus affecting the onset and development of heart failure (HF). Many of these actions are determined by thyroid-induced oxidative stress modulation, for example, through the direct production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) during the synthesis of THs. Oxidative stress alteration, as both increased oxidative stress and reduced availability of antioxidants, exacerbated oxidation of low density lipoproteins, modulated nitric oxide bioavailability, and increased inflammation. These events have been clearly involved in any phase of HF development and extent. The present review aims to discuss oxidative stress status under altered thyroid states in HF pathology.
KeywordsThyroid hormones Oxidative stress Heart failure Biomarkers
A sincere thanks to Dr. Laura SABATINO for proofreading this manuscript.
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