Modalities of Thyroid Hormone Administration and Correlates Between Blood and Tissue Levels

  • Francesco S. CeliEmail author


Thyroid hormone action is modulated by the interaction between circulating levels of thyroid hormone and the cellular and nuclear signal translation mechanisms leading to a fine time- and cell-specific regulation of the hormonal signal. The peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormone is responsible for the activation or degradation of thyroid hormone and plays a pivotal role in regulating the circulating levels of T3 in hypothyroidism. Additionally acute and chronic cardiovascular disease are associated with a decrease in circulating levels of T3, possibly maladaptive, prompting the hypothesis that T3 replacement may hasten myocardial recovery. The design of therapy aimed to restore circulating and tissue levels of T3 during cardiovascular disease should take in account the pharmacokinetics characteristics of T3 and the potential for clinically relevant rapid non-genomic effects of thyroid hormone.


Levothyroxine Liothyronine Desiccated thyroid extracts Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal MedicineVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA

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