TH Metabolism and Active TH Metabolites in the Heart

  • Federica Saponaro
  • Riccardo ZucchiEmail author


Thyroid hormones (THs), namely T3 and T4, display many effects on cardiac function by interacting with their specific nuclear receptors (genomic effects) or with different targets (non-genomic effects). Moreover, new metabolites of THs have been characterized which may represent independent chemical messengers. Deiodination is responsible for the production of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2), which has been detected in human blood and modulates mitochondrial function and lipid metabolism. Deamination and decarboxylation of THs lead to the production of thyroacetic acids, which are considered potential thyromimetic agents. Decarboxylation and deiodination yield a class of compounds known as thyronamines, particularly 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM). T1AM has shown functional effects on the central nervous system and on energy metabolism, possibly by interacting with a specific class of receptors (trace amine-associated receptors). In the heart, T1AM produces a negative inotropic and chronotropic effect and has been shown to have a cardioprotective action, which might be due to mitochondrial modulation.


Diiodothyronine Deiodination Thyronamines 



There is no conflict of interest for any author.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of PathologyUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

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