Theories of Juvenile Delinquency

  • Tom D. Kennedy
  • David Detullio
  • Danielle H. Millen
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Psychology book series (BRIEFSPSYCHOL)


Multiple theories exist that help our understanding of the emergence, development and trajectories of juvenile crime. This chapter examines the creation and refinement of some of the most influential theories of delinquency. Crime and delinquency are presented from historical and contemporary perspectives. Macro-level (e.g., Strain) and individual-level (e.g., Moffitt’s dual taxonomy) theories of delinquency provide a framework to better understand current trends, risk factors and treatment and prevention efforts. The progression towards a more comprehensive theoretical framework is delineated.


Juvenile crime Delinquency Theory 



We would like to acknowledge the contribution of Michelle H. Nagle to the section on female delinquency.


  1. Adler, F. (1975). Sisters in crime: The rise of the new female criminal. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  2. Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology, 30(1), 47–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agnew, R. (2001). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38(4), 319–361.Google Scholar
  4. Agnew, R., & Brezina, T. (2001). Juvenile delinquency: Causes and control. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  5. Aguilar, B., Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., & Carlson, E. (2000). Distinguishing the early-onset/persistent and adolescence-onset antisocial behavior types: From birth to 16 years. Development and Psychopathology, 12(2), 109–132.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Asscher, J. J., van Vugt, E. S., Stams, G. J. J., Deković, M., Eichelsheim, V. I., & Yousfi, S. (2011). The relationship between juvenile psychopathic traits, delinquency and (violent) recidivism: A meta‐analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(11), 1134–1143.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191.Google Scholar
  8. Barkley, R. A. (1990) Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: Handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  9. Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121(1), 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bartusch, D. R. J., Lynam, D. R., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1997). Is age important? Testing a general versus a developmental theory of antisocial behavior. Criminology, 35(1), 13–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Belknap, J. (1996). The invisible woman: Gender, crime, and justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  12. Bellanti, C. J., & Bierman, K. L. (2000). Disentangling the impact of low cognitive ability and inattention on social behavior and peer relationships. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29(1), 66–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Benton, A. L. (1994). Neuropsychological assessment. Annual Review of Psychology, 45(1), 1–23.Google Scholar
  14. Blumstein, A. (2005). An overview of the symposium [on developmental criminology] and some next steps. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 602, 242–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Broidy, L. M., Nagin, D. S., Tremblay, R. E., Bates, J. E., Brame, B., Dodge, K. A., … Lynam, D. R. (2003). Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: A six-site, cross-national study. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 222.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Brower, M. C., & Price, B. H. (2001). Neuropsychiatry of frontal lobe dysfunction in violent and criminal behaviour: A critical review. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 71(6), 720–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, E. C., Catalano, R. F., Fleming, C. B., Haggerty, K. P., Abbott, R. D., Cortes, R. R., & Park, J. (2005). Mediator effects in the social development model: An examination of constituent theories. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 15(4), 221–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buikhuisen, W., Bontekoe, E. H. M., Plas-Korenhoff, C., & Meijs, B. W. G. P. (1988). Biological, psychological, and social factors related to juvenile delinquency. In W. Buikhuisen & S. A. Mednick (Eds.), Explaining criminal behavior. Inter disciplinary approaches (pp. 121–140). Leiden: E.J Brill.Google Scholar
  19. Cairns, R. B., Cairns, B. D., Neckerman, H. J., Ferguson, L. L., & Gariepy, J. L. (1989). Growth and aggression: I. Childhood to early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 25(2), 320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Campbell, S. B., Pierce, E. W., Moore, G., Marakovitz, S., & Newby, K. (1996). Boys’ externalizing problems at elementary school age: Pathways from early behavior problems, maternal control, and family stress. Development and Psychopathology, 8(4), 701–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carr, N. T., Hudson, K., Hanks, R. S., & Hunt, A. N. (2008). Gender effects along the juvenile justice system evidence of a gendered organization. Feminist Criminology, 3(1), 25–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Krueger, R. F., & Schmutte, P. S. (1994). Are some people crime-prone? Replications of the personality-crime relationship across countries, genders, races, and methods. Criminology, 32(2), 163–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Catalano, R. F., & Hawkins, J. D. (1996). A theory of antisocial behavior. In Delinquency and Crime: Current Theories (p. 149). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Catalano, R. F., Park, J., Harachi, T. W., Haggerty, K. P., Abbott, R. D., & Hawkins, J. D. (2005). Mediating the effects of poverty, gender, individual characteristics, and external constraints on antisocial behavior: A test of the social development model and implications for developmental life-course theory. Integrated Developmental and Life-course Theories of Offending, 14, 93–124.Google Scholar
  25. Cauffman, E., Skeem, J., Dmitrieva, J., & Cavanagh, C. (2016). Comparing the stability of psychopathy scores in adolescents versus adults: How often is “fledgling psychopathy” misdiagnosed? Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 22(1), 77–91.Google Scholar
  26. Cawson, P., & Martell, M. (1979). Children referred to closed units. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  27. Chesney-Lind, M., & Shelden, R. G. (2013). Girls, delinquency, and juvenile justice. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  28. Cleckley, H. (1941). The mask of sanity. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.Google Scholar
  29. Cleckley, H. (1982). The mask of sanity (Rev. ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.Google Scholar
  30. Conger, R. D. (1976). Social control and social learning models of delinquent behavior a synthesis. Criminology, 14(1), 17–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cornell, D. G., Benedek, E. P., & Benedek, D. M. (1987). Characteristics of adolescents charged with homicide: Review of 72 cases. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 5(1), 11–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dåderman, A. M. (1999). Differences between severely conduct-disordered juvenile males and normal juvenile males: The study of personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 26(5), 827–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Daly, K., & Chesney-Lind, M. (1988). Feminism and criminology. Justice Quarterly, 5(4), 497–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dodge, K. A., Lochman, J. E., Harnish, J. D., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1997). Reactive and proactive aggression in school children and psychiatrically impaired chronically assaultive youth. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(1), 37.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Dodge, K. A., & Newman, J. P. (1981). Biased decision-making processes in aggressive boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90(4), 375.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Donnellan, M. B., Ge, X., & Wenk, E. (2000). Cognitive abilities in adolescent-limited and life- course-persistent criminal offenders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 396.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Drapela, L. A., & Mosher, C. (2007). The conditional effect of parental drug use on parental attachment and adolescent drug use: Social control and social development model perspectives. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 16(3), 63–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Duffy, D. C., & Campbell, S. R. (1994). Ambient air temperature as a predictor of activity of adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 31(1), 178–180.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Famularo, R., Kinscherff, R., & Fenton, T. (1992). Psychiatric diagnoses of maltreated children: Preliminary findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 31(5), 863–867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Farrington, D. P. (1987). Early precursors of frequent offending. In Families, schools, and delinquency prevention (pp. 27–50). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fleming, C. B., Catalano, R. F., Oxford, M. L., & Harachi, T. W. (2002). A test of generalizability of the social development model across gender and income groups with longitudinal data from the elementary school developmental period. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18(4), 423–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fonseca, A. C., & Yule, W. (1995). Personality and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: An enquiry into Eysenck’s and Gray’s theories. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23(6), 767–781.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Freud, S. (1925). Negation. The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 6, 367–371.Google Scholar
  44. Frick, P. J. (1998). Conduct disorders and severe antisocial behavior. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Frick, P. J., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Tannenbaum, L., Van Horn, Y., Christ, M. A. G., … Hanson, K. (1993). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: A meta-analytic review of factor analyses and cross-validation in a clinic sample. Clinical Psychology Review, 13(4), 319–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gatzke-Kopp, L. M., Raine, A., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Steinhauer, S. R. (2002). Serious delinquent behavior, sensation seeking, and electrodermal arousal. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(5), 477–486.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Giancola, P. R. (1995). Evidence for dorsolateral and orbital prefrontal cortical involvement in the expression of aggressive behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 21(6), 431–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Giancola, P. R., Moss, H. B., Martin, C. S., Kirisci, L., & Tarter, R. E. (1996). Executive cognitive functioning predicts reactive aggression in boys at high risk for substance abuse: A prospective study. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 20(4), 740–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gilbert, D. G., Gilbert, B. O., Johnson, S., & McColloch, M. A. (1991). Electrocortical and electrodermal activity differences between aggressive adolescents and controls. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6(2), 403.Google Scholar
  50. Glaser, B. A., Calhoun, G. B., & Petrocelli, J. V. (2002). Personality characteristics of male juvenile offenders by adjudicated offenses as indicated by the MMPI–A. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 29(2), 183–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Glittins, J. (1952). Approved School boys: An account of the observation, classification and treatment of boys who came to Aycliffe School. London: HM Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  52. Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Graham v. Florida, 560 U.S. 48, 82 (2010).Google Scholar
  54. Guralnick, M. J., & Groom, J. M. (1987). The peer relations of mildly delayed and nonhandicapped preschool children in mainstreamed playgroups. Child Development, 58, 1556–1572.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Haapasalo, J., & Tremblay, R. E. (1994). Physically aggressive boys from ages 6 to 12: Family background, parenting behavior, and prediction of delinquency. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(5), 1044.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Hawkins, D. J., Herrenkohl, T., Farrington, D. P., Brewer, D., Catalano, R. F., & Harachi, T. W. (1998). A review of predictors of youth violence. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious & violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 106–146). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc..Google Scholar
  57. Hirschi, T. (1969). A control theory of delinquency. Criminology Theory: Selected Classic Readings, 1969, 289–305.Google Scholar
  58. Hoaken, P. N., Giancola, P. R., & Pihl, R. O. (1998). Executive cognitive functions as mediators of alcohol-related aggression. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 33(1), 47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hoffman-Bustamante, D. (1973). The nature of female criminality. Issues Criminology, 8, 117.Google Scholar
  60. Holsinger, K. (2000). Feminist perspectives on female offending: Examining real girls’ lives. Women & Criminal Justice, 12(1), 23–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hoyt, S., & Scherer, D. G. (1998). Female juvenile delinquency: Misunderstood by the juvenile justice system, neglected by social science. Law and Human Behavior, 22(1), 81–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Huang, B., Kosterman, R., Catalano, R. F., Hawkins, J. D., & Abbott, R. D. (2001). Modeling mediation in the etiology of violent behavior in adolescence: A test of the social development model. Criminology, 39(1), 75–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hubbard, D. J., & Pratt, T. C. (2002). A meta-analysis of the predictors of delinquency among girls. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 34(3), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jacob, M. (2007). The significance of gender in choosing an etiological model of delinquency. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 68, 3591.Google Scholar
  65. Jones, S. E., Miller, J. D., & Lynam, D. R. (2011). Personality, antisocial behavior, and aggression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39(4), 329–337.Google Scholar
  66. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1982). Variants of uncertainty. Cognition, 11(2), 143–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Karniski, W. M., Levine, M. D., Clarke, S., Palfrey, J. S., & Meltzer, L. J. (1982). A study of neurodevelopmental findings in early adolescent delinquents. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 3(3), 151–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kellerman, J. (1999). Savage Spawn: Reflections on Violent Children. New York: The Ballantine Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  69. Kennedy, T. D., Burnett, K. F., & Edmonds, W. A. (2011). Intellectual, behavioral and personality correlates of violent versus non-violent juvenile offenders. Aggressive Behavior, 37, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kennedy, T. D., Edmonds, W. A., Dann, K. T. J., & Burnett, K. F. (2010). The clinical and adaptive features of young offenders with histories of child-parent violence. Journal of Family Violence, 25(5), 509–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kennedy, T. D., Edmonds, W. A., Millen, D. H., & Detullio, D. (2019). Chronic juvenile offenders: Exploring risk factor models of recidivism. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 17(2), 174–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Konopka, G. (1976). Young girls: A portrait of adolescence. Englewood, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  73. Krueger, R. F., Schmutte, P. S., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Campbell, K., & Silva, P. A. (1994). Personality traits are linked to crime among men and women: Evidence from a birth cohort. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103(2), 328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kruesi, M. J., Hibbs, E. D., Zahn, T. P., Keysor, C. S., Hamburger, S. D., Bartko, J. J., & Rapoport, J. L. (1992). A 2-year prospective follow-up study of children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders: Prediction by cerebrospinal fluid 5- hydroxyindoleacetic acid, homovanillic acid, and autonomic measures? Archives of General Psychiatry, 49(6), 429–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lahey, B. B., McBurnett, K., & Loeber, R. (2000). Are attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder developmental precursors to conduct disorder? In Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 431–446). Boston, MA: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lahey, B. B., McBurnett, K., Loeber, R., & Hart, E. L. (1995). Psychobiology. In G. Sholevar (Ed.), Conduct disorders in children and adolescents (pp. 27–44). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  77. Langan, P. A., & Levin, D. J. (2002). Recidivism of prisoners released in 1994. Federal Sentencing Reporter, 15(1), 58–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Laundra, K. H., Kiger, G., & Bahr, S. J. (2002). A social development model of serious delinquency: Examining gender differences. Journal of Primary Prevention, 22(4), 389–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Laundra, K., Laundra, T., & Belt, D. (2004). Gendered effects of meditation on juvenile delinquents. The Journal of the Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters, 81, 250.Google Scholar
  80. Lewis, D. O. (1990). Neuropsychiatric and experiential correlates of violent juvenile delinquency. Neuropsychology Review, 1(2), 125–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lin, W. H., Cochran, J. K., & Mieczkowski, T. (2011). Direct and vicarious violent victimization and juvenile delinquency: An application of general strain theory. Sociological Inquiry, 81(2), 195–222.Google Scholar
  82. Loeb, J., & Mednick, S. (1977). A prospective study of predictors of criminality: 3 electrodermal response patterns. In S. Mednick & K. Christiansen (Eds.), Biosocial bases of criminal behavior. New York: Gardner.Google Scholar
  83. Loeber, R. (1991). Antisocial behavior: More enduring than changeable? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(3), 393–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., & Petechuk, D. (2003). Child delinquency: Early intervention and prevention. Washington, DC: Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  85. Loeber, R., & Hay, D. (1997). Key issues in the development of aggression and violence from childhood to early adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology, 48(1), 371–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Loeber, R., Keenan, K., & Zhang, Q. (1997). Boys’ experimentation and persistence in developmental pathways toward serious delinquency. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 6(3), 321–357.Google Scholar
  87. Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1998). Development of juvenile aggression and violence: Some common misconceptions and controversies. American Psychologist, 53(2), 242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Loeber, R., Wung, P., Keenan, K., Giroux, B., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B., & Maugham, B. (1993). Developmental pathways in disruptive child behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 5(1-2), 103–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Loper, A. B., Hoffschmidt, S. J., & Ash, E. (2001). Personality features and characteristics of violent events committed by juvenile offenders. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 19(1), 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lynam, D. R. (1997). Pursuing the psychopath: Capturing the fledgling psychopath in a nomological net. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(3), 425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lynam, D., Moffitt, T., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1993). Explaining the relation between IQ and delinquency: Class, race, test motivation, school failure, or self-control? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102(2), 187–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Matsueda, R. L. (2006). Differential social organization, collective action, and crime. Crime, Law and Social Change, 46(1-2), 3–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Matza, D. (1964). 1964 Delinquency and drift. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  94. Mazerolle, P., Burton Jr, V. S., Cullen, F. T., Evans, T. D., & Payne, G. L. (2000). Strain, anger, and delinquent adaptations specifying general strain theory. Journal of Criminal Justice, 28(2), 89–101.Google Scholar
  95. McArthur Foundation Research Network on Mental Health and the Law (1996). Violence, competence and coercion: Pivotal issues in mental health law. Paper given at Wadham College, Oxford, 4th July, 1996.Google Scholar
  96. McNamara, L., & Ballard, M. E. (1999). Resting arousal, sensation seeking, and music preference. Genetic. Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 125(3), 229.Google Scholar
  97. Merton, R. K. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review, 3(5), 672–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Meyers, K., McLellan, A. T., Jaeger, J. L., & Pettinati, H. M. (1995). The development of the Comprehensive Addiction Severity Index for Adolescents (CASI-A): An interview for assessing multiple problems of adolescents. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 12(3), 181–193.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Miller v. Alabama, 567 U.S. 460, 465 (2012).Google Scholar
  100. Mithaug, D. E. (2000). Learning to theorize. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  101. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). The neuropsychology of conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5(1-2), 135–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Moffitt, T.E. (1997). Partner violence among young adults: Summary of a presentation. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  103. Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Dickson, N., Silva, P., & Stanton, W. (1996). Childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial conduct problems in males: Natural history from ages 3 to 18 years. Development and Psychopathology, 8(2), 399–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Moffitt, T. E., Lynam, D. R., & Silva, P. A. (1994). Neuropsychological tests predicting persistent male delinquency. Criminology, 32(2), 277–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1988). IQ and delinquency: A direct test of the differential detection hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97(3), 330.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Monahan, J., Steadman, H. J., Robbins, P. C., Silver, E., Appelbaum, P. S., Grisso, T., … Roth, L. H. (2000). Developing a clinically useful actuarial tool for assessing violence risk. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 176(4), 312–319.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Moore, M. (2011). Psychological theories of crime and delinquency. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 21(3), 226–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Morgan, A. B., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2000). A meta-analytic review of the relation between antisocial behavior and neuropsychological measures of executive function. Clinical Psychology Review, 20(1), 113–136.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Munsch, J., & Blyth, D. A. (1993). An analysis of the functional nature of adolescents’ supportive relationships. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 13(2), 132–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Myers, W. C., Burgess, A. W., & Nelson, J. A. (1998). Criminal and behavioral aspects of juvenile sexual homicide. Journal of Forensic Science, 43(2), 340–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Nabuzoka, D., & Smith, P. K. (1993). Sociometric status and social behaviour of children with and without learning difficulties. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34(8), 1435–1448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Nagin, D., & Tremblay, R. E. (1999). Trajectories of boys’ physical aggression, opposition, and hyperactivity on the path to physically violent and nonviolent juvenile delinquency. Child Development, 70(5), 1181–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Nicholls, T. L., Cruise, K., Greig, D., & Hinz, H. (2015). Female offenders: Adults and juveniles in conflict with the law. In P. Zapf & B. Cutler (Eds.), APA handbook of forensic psychology (Criminal investigation, adjudication, and sentencing outcomes) (Vol. 2, pp. 79–123). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  114. Obeidallah, D. A., & Earls, F. J. (1999). Adolescent girls: The role of depression in the development of delinquency. Alternatives to Incarceration, 5(5), S4.Google Scholar
  115. Plouffe, L., & Stelmack, R. M. (1986). Sensation-seeking and the electrodermal orienting response in young and elderly females. Personality and Individual Differences, 7, 119–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Pulkkinen, L., & Tremblay, R. E. (1992). Patterns of boys’ social adjustment in two cultures and at different ages: A longitudinal perspective. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 15(4), 527–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Quinsey, V. L., Skilling, T. A., Lalumiere, M. L., & Craig, W. M. (2004). Juvenile delinquency: Understanding the origins of individual differences. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Raine, A. (1993). The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder. San Diego: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Raine, A., Reynold, C., Venables, P. H., Mednick, S. A., & Farrington, D. P. (1998). Fearlessness, stimulation-seeking, and large body size at age 3 years as early predispositions to childhood aggression at 11 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Raine, A., Venables, P. H., & Williams, M. (1990). Relationships between central and autonomic measures of arousal at age 15 years and criminality at age 24 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47(11), 1003–1007.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Reiss, A. J., & Roth, J. A. (1993). Understanding and preventing violence: Panel on the understanding and control of violence behavior. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  122. Rutter, M. (2008). Developing concepts in developmental psychopathology. In J. Hudziak (Ed.) Developmental psychopathology and wellness: Genetic and environmental influences (pp. 3–22). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Publishing.Google Scholar
  123. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (2003). Life‐course desisters? Trajectories of crime among delinquent boys followed to age 70. Criminology, 41(3), 555–592.Google Scholar
  124. Scarpa, A., & Raine, A. (1997). Psychophysiology of anger and violent behavior. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20(2), 375–394.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Séguin, J. R., Pihl, R. O., Harden, P. W., Tremblay, R. E., & Boulerice, B. (1995). Cognitive and neuropsychological characteristics of physically aggressive boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(4), 614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Shaklee, H. (1979). Bounded rationality and cognitive development: Upper limits on growth? Cognitive Psychology, 11(3), 327–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  128. Simões, C., Matos, M. G., & Batista-Foguet, J. M. (2008). Juvenile delinquency: Analysis of risk and protective factors using quantitative and qualitative methods. Cognition, Brain Behavior. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12(4), 389–408.Google Scholar
  129. Simons, R. L., Wu, C. I., Conger, R. D., & Lorenz, F. O. (1994). Two routes to delinquency: Differences between early and late starters in the impact of parenting and deviant peers. Criminology, 32(2), 247–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Simourd, L., & Andrews, D. A. (1994). Correlates of delinquency: A look at gender differences. Forum on Corrections Research, 6, 26–31.Google Scholar
  131. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: The Macmillan Company.Google Scholar
  132. Snyder, H. (2001). Epidemiology of official offending. In R. Loeber & D. Farrington (Eds.), Child delinquents: Development, intervention and service needs (pp. 25–46). Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Stattin, H., & Klackenberg-Larsson, I. (1993). Early language and intelligence development and their relationship to future criminal behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102(3), 369.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Stattin, H., & Magnusson, D. (1989). The role of early aggressive behavior in the frequency, seriousness, and types of later crime. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(6), 710.Google Scholar
  135. Steinberg, L. (2009). Should the science of adolescent brain development inform public policy? American Psychologist, 64(8), 739.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. Steinberg, L., & Cauffman, E. (1996). Maturity of judgment in adolescence: Psychosocial factors in adolescent decision making. Law and Human Behavior, 20(3), 249–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Steketee, M., Junger, M., & Junger-Tas, J. (2013). Sex differences in the predictors of juvenile delinquency: Females are more susceptible to poor environments; males are influenced more by low self-control. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 29(1), 88–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sullivan v. Florida, 560 US 181 (2010).Google Scholar
  139. Sutherland, E. H., & Cressey, D. R. (1978). Criminology. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.: J. B. Lippincott Company.Google Scholar
  140. Taylor, A. R. (1990). Behavioral subtypes of low-achieving children: Differences in school social adjustment. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 11(4), 487–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Teichner, G., & Golden, C. J. (2000). The relationship of neuropsychological impairment to conduct disorder in adolescence: A conceptual review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 5(6), 509–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Thornberry, T. P. (1996). Crime Policy in America Today. Criminal Law Bulletin, 32(5), 470–473.Google Scholar
  143. Thornberry, T. P., et al. (1991). Testing interactional theory: An examination of reciprocal causal relationships among family, school, and delinquency. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82, 3–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Tibbetts, S. G., & Piquero, A. R. (1999). The influence of gender, low birth weight, and disadvantaged environment in predicting early onset of offending: A test of Moffitt’s interactional hypothesis. Criminology, 37(4), 843–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tittle, C. R. (1995). Control balance. In Towards a general theory of deviance. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  146. Tremblay, R. E. (2000). The development of aggressive behaviour during childhood: What have we learned in the past century? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24(2), 129–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Vermeiren, R., De Clippele, A., Schwab-Stone, M., Ruchkin, V., & Deboutte, D. (2002). Neuropsychological characteristics of three subgroups of Flemish delinquent adolescents. Neuropsychology, 16(1), 49.Google Scholar
  148. Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., & Tremblay, R. E. (2002). Reactively and proactively aggressive children: Antecedent and subsequent characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(4), 495–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wadsworth, M. E. J. (1979). Roots of delinquency: Infancy, adolescence and crime (pp. 34–46). Oxford: Martin Robertson.Google Scholar
  151. Whalen, C. K., & Henker, B. (1985). The social worlds of hyperactive (ADDH) children. Clinical Psychology Review, 5(5), 447–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. White, J. L., Moffitt, T. E., Earls, F., Robins, L., & Silva, P. A. (1990). How early can we tell?: Predictors of childhood conduct disorder and adolescent delinquency. Criminology, 28(4), 507–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. White, J. L., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1989). A prospective replication of the protective effects of IQ in subjects at high risk for juvenile delinquency. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(6), 719.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. Widiger, T. A., Mangine, S., Corbitt, E. M., Ellis, C. R., & Thomas, G. V. (1995). Personality Disorder Interview-IV: A semi-structured interview for the assessment of personality disorder. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  155. Wolff, S., Alexander, R., & Smith, A. M. (2000). Child homicide and the law: Implications of the judgements of the European Court of Human Rights in the case of the children who killed James Bulger. Child Psychology and Psychiatry Review, 5(3), 133–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Yoshikawa, H. (1994). Prevention as cumulative protection: effects of early family support and education on chronic delinquency and its risks. Psychological Bulletin, 115(1), 28.Google Scholar
  157. Zagar, R., Arbit, J., Sylvies, R., Busch, K. G., & Hughes, J. R. (1990). Homicidal adolescents: A replication. Psychological Reports, 67(3), 1235–1242.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tom D. Kennedy
    • 1
  • David Detullio
    • 1
  • Danielle H. Millen
    • 1
  1. 1.Nova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA

Personalised recommendations