A Century of Humiliation

  • Alexander Rafatjoo


During the mid-nineteenth century, China’s historical course began to shift. In the ensuing period that came to be known as the Century of Humiliation, China ultimately was taken advantage of by foreign powers who, in effect, dominated the country for their own benefit. This period of time in China’s history was host to several wars with foreign nations and rebellions within the country’s borders. The weakening Qing Dynasty rulers, facing increasing internal and external pressures, often turned to foreign powers for assistance. Ultimately, the Qing were overthrown by revolutionaries looking to establish a republican government, thus bringing an end to China’s thousands of years of dynastic rule.


  1. Ch’ên, Jerome. 1960. The Nature and Characteristics of the Boxer Movement – A Morphological Study. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 23 (2): 287–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cohen, Paul A. 1997. History in Three Keys: The Boxers as Event, Experience, and Myth. New York: Columbia University.Google Scholar
  3. Smith, Adam, Roy Hutcheson Campbell, Andrew Stewart Skinner, and William Burton Todd. 1979. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  4. Spence, Jonathan D. 1991. The Search for Modern China. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Rafatjoo
    • 1
  1. 1.ProvidenceUSA

Personalised recommendations