High-Frequency Androgenic Green Plant Regeneration in Indica Rice for Accelerated Breeding

  • Sanghamitra Samantaray
  • Byomkesh Dash
  • Sudhansu Sekhar Bhuyan
  • Parmeswaran Chidambaranathan
  • Jawahar Lal Katara
  • Ram Lakhan Verma
  • B. N. Devanna
  • Krishnendu Chattopadhyay
  • Awadesh Kumar
  • A. Anandan


Various biotechnological tools have emerged over conventional breeding strategies, which are essential to meet the demand for food safety of the ever-growing population. In addition, the enhancement of the quantity and quality of rice, along with climate resilience and disease resistance of rice, is the most essential need of the hour. To mitigate these problems, there is a need to reorient rice-breeding programmes in order to shorten its breeding cycle. Androgenesis is well proven and is a promising technique for fixing agronomic characters in homozygous state and for enhancing the selection efficiency of useful recessive traits in a very short period of time as compared to the long inbreeding method, which may take several years. A well-established androgenic protocol for japonica rice has been developed. However, indica rice is found to be recalcitrant to androgenesis, though it is quite popular in Asian countries, mostly in south-eastern countries. Therefore, indica rice improvement needs to be done by developing androgenic methods for the production of doubled haploids. A successful androgenesis method is only achieved by a conglomeration of associated factors like microspore stage, media composition etc. Out of two methods of androgenesis, two-step method is usually preferred as against one-step approach, which involves callus induction, followed by organogenesis. This chapter focuses on the various factors associated with green shoot regeneration by reducing albinism.


Indica rice Green plant regeneration Androgenic haploids Doubled haploidy Accelerated breeding DH breeding 



The authors wish to acknowledge the help of the National Rice Research Institute (formerly CRRI), Cuttack, Odisha, for providing the necessary facilities, and also of the National Agricultural Science Fund (NASF), New Delhi, for providing the adequate funding for the doubled haploid project.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanghamitra Samantaray
    • 1
  • Byomkesh Dash
    • 1
  • Sudhansu Sekhar Bhuyan
    • 1
  • Parmeswaran Chidambaranathan
    • 1
  • Jawahar Lal Katara
    • 1
  • Ram Lakhan Verma
    • 1
  • B. N. Devanna
    • 1
  • Krishnendu Chattopadhyay
    • 1
  • Awadesh Kumar
    • 1
  • A. Anandan
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-National Rice Research InstituteCuttackIndia

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