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ERCP-Related Perforations

  • Alberto TringaliEmail author
  • Marcello Cintolo
  • Massimiliano Mutignani
Chapter
  • 153 Downloads

Abstract

Perforations are threatening adverse events during ERCP, with an incidence ranging between 0.08 and 2.2% of the procedures, varying among the different series. ERCP-related perforations are divided into four groups according to Stapfer’s classification: type 1 (duodenal wall), type 2 (periampullary), type 3 (biliary duct), and type 4 (only free air at the CT scan). Many risk factors (RF) have been reported for ERCP-related perforations; most important RFs are surgically altered anatomy, for type 1, and sphincterotomy, use of guidewires, and biliary or papillary dilation, for type 2 and 3. The immediate recognition of the perforation at the endoscopy or at the fluoroscopy is crucial to achieve better outcomes and for a timely treatment. Post-procedural diagnosis of perforation is usually, clinically suspected, and subsequently confirmed by abdominal CT scan. A prompt endoscopic closure of type 1 perforation should be attempted; otherwise surgery is strongly recommended. In type 2 and 3 perforations, conservative management is appropriate, although the endoscopic immediate placement of FCSEMS seems to be indicated to achieve better outcomes and to avoid subsequent surgery with prolonged hospital stay and high morbidity and mortality.

Keywords

ERCP Duodenal perforation Retroperitoneal perforation Sphincterotomy Stapfer’s classification 

Abbreviations

ABX

Antibiotics

BS

Biliary stent

C

Conservative treatment

CBD

Common bile duct

CR

Case report

CS

Case series

CT

Computed tomography

E

Endoscopy

EBL

Endoscopic band ligation

ERCP

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

FCSEMS

Fully covered self-expandable metal stent

IV

Intravenous

NBD

Naso-biliary drainage

NBM

Nil-by-mouth

NDT

Naso-duodenal tube

NGT

Nasogastric tube

NNR

Number not reported

NR

Not reported

OTSC

Over-the-scope clip

PBS

Plastic biliary stent

PCD

Percutaneous drainage (surgical)

PTC

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

R

Retrospective

S

Surgery

TTSC

Through-the-scope clip

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto Tringali
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Marcello Cintolo
    • 3
  • Massimiliano Mutignani
    • 3
  1. 1.Endoscopy UnitASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano NiguardaMilanItaly
  2. 2.ULSS 2 Marca Trevigiana, Conegliano HospitalConeglianoItaly
  3. 3.Endoscopy UnitASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano NiguardaMilanItaly

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