Anatomy of the Biliary Tree

  • Giuseppe M. EttorreEmail author
  • Roberto L. Meniconi


The anatomy of the biliary tract is a foremost topic for general surgeons, radiologists, hepatologists, and endoscopists. Anatomical variations of the biliary tree are commonly encountered by the practitioner and may result in misdiagnosis and serious injury of the biliary system in the operative setting. In this chapter, we describe the basic anatomy of the biliary tree and its main anatomical variations.


Biliary system Anatomy Variation Hepatic duct Biliary confluence Accessory Aberrant 


  1. 1.
    Couinaud C. Le foie. Etudes Anatomiques et chirurgicales. Edition Masson; 1957.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Belghiti J, Clavien PA, Gadzijev E. The Brisbane 2000 terminology of liver anatomy and resections. HPB. 2000;2:333–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Healey JE Jr, Schroy PC. Anatomy of the biliary ducts within the human liver; analysis of the prevailing pattern of branchings and the major variations of the biliary ducts. AMA Arch Surg. 1953;66:599–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hjortsjö CH. The topography of the intrahepatic duct system. Acta Anat (Basel). 1951;11:599–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hribernik M, Gadzijev EM, Mlakar B, Ravnik D. Variations of intrahepatic and proximal extrahepatic bile ducts. Hepatogastroenterology. 2003;50:342–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huang TL, Cheng YF, Chen CL, et al. Variants of the bile ducts: clinical application in the potential donor of living-related hepatic transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1996;128:1669–70.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hepp J, Pernod R, Hautefeuille P. Les lésions concernant la convergence radiculaire en chirurgie biliaire réparatrice. Ann Chir. 1966;20:382–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chaib E, Kanas AF, Galvão FH, D’Albuquerque LA. Bile duct confluence: anatomic variations and its classification. Surg Radiol Anat. 2014;36(2):105–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hollinshead WH. The lower part of the common bile duct: a review. Surg Clin North Am. 1957;37:939–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boyden EA. The anatomy of the choledochoduodenal junction in man. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1957;104:642–52.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kamisawa T, Ando H, Suyama M, et al. Working Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pancreaticobiliary Maljunction; Japanese Study Group on Pancreaticobiliary Maljunction. Japanese clinical practice guidelines for pancreaticobiliary maljunction. J Gastroenterol. 2012;47:731–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schnelldorfer T, Sarr MG, Adams DB. What is the duct of Luschka? A systematic review. J Gastrointest Surg. 2012;16:656–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of General Surgery and Organ TransplantationAzienda Ospedaliera San-Camillo ForlaniniRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations