Recent Advances in the Electro‑Oxidation of Urea for Direct Urea Fuel Cell and Urea Electrolysis
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This paper provides an overview of recent advances in urea electro-oxidation. Urea sources are abundant from human urine, urea-containing wastewater, and industrial urea, thus becoming an attractive option as anodic fuel for the application in direct urea fuel cells (DUFCs). Besides, as a hydrogen-rich chemical fuel, urea can also be electrolyzed to produce hydrogen for energy storage in the near future. The exact mechanisms of urea decomposition are pretty different in alkaline or neutral mediums and are separately discussed in detail. More importantly, the development of anodic electro-catalysts is of great significance for improving the electrochemical performance of both DUFCs and urea electrolysis cells, which is systematically summarized in our review. Challenges and prospects on the future development of urea electro-oxidation are particularly proposed.
KeywordsFuel cells Electrolysis Urea Electro-oxidation Electro-catalyst
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