• Darryl CochraneEmail author


The importance of warm-up for subsequent exercise performance has been well documented. Various warm-up strategies have been implemented to optimise performance, which is dependent on the exerciser, sport, physical exertion, duration and recovery time between warm-up and the activity. Vibration exercise provides another technique for warming-up. It can complement traditional warm-up or it can be used in isolation. Vibration warm-up is able to raise muscle temperature, which is a precursor for improving subsequent short-duration performance, although resistance-training exercises may not be so reliant on increasing muscle temperature. Vibration warm-up has no additional ergogenic effect to increase short-term performance compared to other warm-up strategies when muscle temperature is equivalently elevated. Due to its time-efficient manner, vibration warm-up incurs a low metabolic cost. Accordingly, it can be used as a warm-up prior to physical activity and as a re-warm-up strategy during interval breaks to enhance subsequent performance. Vibration warm-up can enhance lower-limb muscular power and flexibility, and for specific sport warm-ups, it can be additive or standalone to ensure the appropriate changes.


Muscle temperature Post-activation potentiation Muscle power Strength Short-term performance Stretching 


  1. 1.
    Bishop D. Warm up I - potential mechanisms and the effects of passive warm up on exercise performance. Sports Med. 2003;33(6):439–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Soligard T, Myklebust G, Steffen K, Holme I, Silvers H, Bizzini M, et al. Comprehensive warm-up programme to prevent injuries in young female footballers: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;337:a2469.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bishop D. Warm up II - performance changes following active warm up and how to structure the warm up. Sports Med. 2003;33(7):483–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cochrane DJ, Stannard SR, Sargeant T, Rittweger J. The rate of muscle temperature increase during acute whole-body vibration exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;103(4):441–8.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Avelar NCP, Costa SJ, da Fonseca SF, Tossige-Gomes R, Gripp FJ, Coimbra CC, et al. The effects of passive warm-up vs. whole-body vibration on high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(11):2997–3003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barnes MJ, Petterson AA, Cochrane DJ. Effects of different warm-up modalities on power output during the high pull. J Sports Sci. 2017;35(10):976–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mohr M, Krustrup P, Nybo L, Nielsen JJ, Bangsbo J. Muscle temperature and sprint performance during soccer matches - beneficial effect of re-warm-up at half-time. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004;14(3):156–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davies CTM, Young K. Effect of temperature on the contractile properties and muscle power of triceps surae in humans. J Appl Physiol. 1983;55(1):191–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lovell R, Midgley A, Barrett S, Carter D, Small K. Effects of different half-time strategies on second half soccer-specific speed, power and dynamic strength. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013;23(1):105–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Axelson HW, Hagbarth KE. Human motor control consequences of thixotropic changes in muscular short-range stiffness. J Physiol. 2001;535(1):279–88.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cronin JB, Oliver M, McNair PJ. Muscle stiffness and injury effects of whole body vibration. Phys Ther Sport. 2004;5(2):68–74.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Siu PM, Tam BT, Chow DH, Guo J-Y, Huang Y-P, Zheng Y-P, et al. Immediate effects of two different whole-body vibration frequencies on muscle peak torque and stiffness. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;91(10):1608–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Colson SS, Petit PD. Lower limbs power and stiffness after whole-body vibration. Int J Sports Med. 2013;34(4):318–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kerschan-Schindl K, Grampp S, Henk C, Resch H, Preisinger E, Fialka-Moser V, et al. Whole-body vibration exercise leads to alterations in muscle blood volume. Clin Physiol. 2001;21(3):377–82.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lythgo N, Eser P, de Groot P, Galea M. Whole-body vibration dosage alters leg blood flow. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2009;29:53–9.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang QX, Ericson K, Styf J. Blood flow in the tibialis anterior muscle by photoplethysmography during foot-transmitted vibration. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;90(5-6):464–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maloney-Hinds C, Petrofsky JS, Zimmerman G. The effect of 30 Hz vs. 50 Hz passive vibration and duration of vibration on skin blood flow in the arm. Med Sci Monit. 2008;14(3):CR112–CR6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sanudo B, Cesar-Castillo M, Tejero S, Cordero-Arriaza FJ, Oliva-Pascual-Vaca A, Figueroa A. Effects of vibration on leg blood flow after intense exercise and its influence on subsequent exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(4):1111–7.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wong A, Sanchez-Gonzalez MA, Gil R, Vicil F, Park SY, Figueroa A. Passive vibration on the legs reduces peripheral and systemic arterial stiffness. J Hypertens. 2012;35(1):126–7.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Naclerio F, Faigenbaum AD, Larumbe-Zabala E, Ratamess NA, Kang J, Friedman P, et al. Effectiveness of different postactivation potentiation protocols with and without whole body vibration on jumping performance in college athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(1):232–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ronnestad BR, Falch GS, Ellefsen S. The effect of whole-body vibration on subsequent sprint performance in well-trained cyclists. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(7):964–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Duc S, Rønnestad BR, Bertucci W. Adding whole body vibration to preconditioning squat exercise increases cycling sprint performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2019; Publish Ahead of Print.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tillin NA, Bishop D. Factors modulating post-activation potentiation and its effect on performance of subsequent explosive activities. Sports Med. 2009;39(2):147–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Colson SS, Petit P-D, Hebreard L, Tessaro J, Pensini M. Whole-body vibration does not enhance muscle activaton. Int J Sports Med. 2009;30(12):841–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cochrane DJ, Stannard SR, Firth EC, Rittweger J. Acute whole-body vibration elicits post-activation potentiation. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;108(2):311–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jordan M, Norris S, Smith D, Herzog W. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on peak isometric torque, muscle twitch torque and voluntary muscle activation of the knee extensors. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20:535–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    McBride JM, Nuzzo JL, Dayne AM, Israetel MA, Nieman DC, Triplett NT. Effect of an acute bout of whole body vibration exercise on muscle force output and motor neuron excitability. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(1):184–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pollock RD, Woledge RC, Martin FC, Newham DJ. Effects of whole body vibration on motor unit recruitment and threshold. J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(3):388–95.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Avelar NCP, Simao AP, Tossige-Gomes R, Neves CDC, Rocha-Vieira E, Coimbra CC, et al. The effect of adding whole-body vibration to squat training on the functional performance and self-report of disease status in elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, controlled clinical study. J Altern Complement Med. 2011;17(12):1149–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Colson SS, Roffino S, Mutin-Carnino M, Carnino A, Petit PD. The effect of dynamic whole-body vibration warm-up on lower extremity performance. Sci Sport. 2016;31(1):19–26.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cormie P, Deane RS, Triplett NT, McBride JM. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on muscle activity, strength, and power. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(2):257–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pojskic H, Pagaduan J, Uzicanin E, Babajic F, Muratovic M, Tomljanovic M. Acute effects of loaded whole body vibration training on performance. Asian J Sports Med. 2015;6(1):e24054.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Armstrong WJ, Grinnell DC, Warren GS. The acute effect of whole-body vibration on the vertical jump height. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(10):2835–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Avelar NC, Salvador FS, Ribeiro VGC, DMS V, Costa SJ, Gripp F, et al. Whole body vibration and post-activation potentiation: a study with repeated measures. Int J Sports Med. 2014;35(8):651–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jacobs PL, Burns P. Acute enhancement of lower-extremity dynamic strength and flexibility with whole-body vibration. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(1):51–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kelly SB, Alvar BA, Black LE, Dodd DJ, Carothers KF, Brown LE. The effect of warm-up with whole-body vibration vs. cycle ergometry on isokinetic dynamometry. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(11):3140–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cochrane DJ, Coley KW, Pritchard HJ, Barnes MJ. Vibration exercise as a warm-up modality for deadlift power output. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(4):1033–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee IM, et al. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(7):1334–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Impellizzeri FM, Bizzini M, Dvorak J, Pellegrini B, Schena F, Junge A. Physiological and performance responses to the FIFA 11+(part 2): a randomised controlled trial on the training effects. J Sports Sci. 2013;31(13):1491–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Costa PB, Graves BS, Whitehurst M, Jacobs PL. The acute effects of different durations of static stretching on dynamic balance performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(1):141–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bunker DJ, Rhea MR, Simons T, Marin PJ. The use of whole-body vibration as a golf warm-up. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;25(2):293–7.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cochrane DJ, Stannard SR. Acute whole body vibration training increases vertical jump and flexibility performance in elite female field hockey players. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(11):860–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Teles MC, Fonseca IAT, Martins JB, de Carvalho MM, Xavier M, Costa SJ, et al. Comparison between whole-body vibration, light-emitting diode, and cycling warm-up on high-intensity physical performance during sprint bicycle exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(6):1542–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Donahue RB, Vingren JL, Duplanty AA, Levitt DE, Luk HY, Kraemer WJ. Acute effect of whole-body vibration warm-up on footspeed quickness. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(8):2286–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Reyes GFC, Dickin DC, Dolny DG, Crusat NJK. Effects of muscular strength, exercise order, and acute whole-body vibration exposure on bat swing speed. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(12):3234–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dabbs NC, Tran TT, Garner JC, Brown LE. A brief review: using whole-body vibration to increase acute power and vertical jump performance. Strength Cond J. 2012;34(5):78–84.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bullock N, Martin DT, Ross A, Rosemond CD, Jordan MJ, Marino FE. Acute effect of whole-body vibration on sprint and jumping performance in elite skeleton athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(4):1371–4.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bullock N, Martin D, Ross A, Rosemond D, Jordan M, Marino F. An acute bout of whole-body vibration on skeleton start and 30-m sprint performance. Eur J Sport Sci. 2009;9(1):35–9.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Neiva HP, Marques MC, Fernandes RJ, Viana JL, Barbosa TM, Marinho DA. Does warm-up have a beneficial effect on 100-m freestyle? Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(1):145–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nepocatych S, Bishop PA, Balilionis G, Richardson MT, Hubner PJ. Acute effect of upper-body vibration on performance in master swimmers. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(12):3396–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Sport, Exercise and NutritionMassey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations