Cancer of the Brain, Eye, and Other Parts of the Central Nervous System

  • Mary VargoEmail author


Primary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies comprise just 1.4% of all cancers, and benign brain tumors have an incidence more than double that of malignant primary brain tumors. Brain and spinal metastatic disease greatly outnumber primary brain or spinal cord tumors. Tumor types which commonly metastasize to brain include lung, breast, kidney, colorectal, and melanoma, affecting an estimated 20% of cancer patients. In general, 2% of all nonhematologic cancer patients exhibit brain metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment. Steroids are almost universally used in the treatment of brain tumors, and nearly all brain tumor patients will receive glucocorticoids at some point in their treatment. Inpatient rehabilitation studies of brain tumor patients have consistently reported comparable functional outcomes and discharge to community rates as other brain rehabilitation populations, such as brain injury and stroke patients. Limited outpatient interdisciplinary outcome data for malignant brain tumor patients suggests favorable functional outcomes and cost-effectiveness. Cognitive rehabilitation has been studied in various populations, including those with childhood tumors, and adult glioma patients, and cognitive therapy has been recommended as a practice guideline for children and adolescents treated for brain tumor.


Brain neoplasms Spinal neoplasms Meningeal neoplasms Glucocorticoids 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Metro Health Medical Center, Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

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