Cancer of the Urinary Tract and Genital Organs: Female and Male

  • Michael Fediw
  • Sean Smith


Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among male patients, accounting for 21% of all new cancer diagnoses in men. However, it accounts for only 8% of cancer deaths annually despite its high prevalence. Decreased bone mineral density is a side effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) that may be underestimated on Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scans in this population. Prostate cancer has a high affinity for metastasizing to bone and is unique in that it characteristically produces osteoblastic bone lesions, although osteolytic lesions may also occur. Multimodal exercise can improve overall physical function in patients with a history of prostate cancer, even those with advanced disease. Pelvic floor and erectile dysfunction frequently occur after surgery or radiation for prostate cancer, with urinary and bowel incontinence being the most common side effects.

Gynecologic cancer is a general term for a group of cancers that include uterine, ovarian, cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers. Uterine cancer, more specifically endometrial cancer, is by far the most common gynecologic cancer followed by ovarian, cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancer, respectively. Pelvic and lower extremity edema is a common comorbidity in gynecologic cancer resulting from tumor invasion of the lymphatics, lymph node dissection, or radiation. Complete Decongestive Therapy (CDT) is the gold standard for lymphedema management.

Kidney cancer is a common cancer, ranking in the top ten for both men and women with close to 90% of these being renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Kidney cancer carries a generally favorable prognosis with 74% 5-year survival rate across all stages. A common site of RCC metastases are the bones of the spine.


Prostatic neoplasms Uterine neoplasms Kidney neoplasms Osteoporosis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Fediw
    • 1
  • Sean Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Michigan, Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationAnn ArborUSA

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