Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms

  • Thomas S. HellingEmail author
  • Daniel Azoulay


They would be called the Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms of liver surgery—Henri Bismuth, Stig Bengmark, and Leslie Blumgart—virtuosos in the surgical symphony of liver diseases. Each would make contributions in liver resection which would thrust the field into the modern era. Bismuth with his concepts of multidisciplinary care, Bengmark with his efforts to unite the liver communities, and Leslie Blumgart, who would expand liver resection to numbers of patients once considered hopelessly incurable.


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Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Mississippi Medical CenterJacksonUSA
  2. 2.Centre Hépato-BiliaireHôpital Universitaire Paul BrousseVillejuifFrance

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