The Art of Operating

  • Thomas S. HellingEmail author
  • Daniel Azoulay


Yet elective procedures on the liver awaited developments in surgery that enhanced comfort of the patient and outcome of the operation. These happenings had a profound influence on surgeons and their willingness to stretch the limits of daring especially in an organ as unforgiving as the liver. Indeed, the Nineteenth Century saw an explosion of interest in the surgical arts. From an era of near-butchery when operations were done as rapidly as possible on patients held down by assistants for fear the luckless subject would panic and bolt, the use of general ether anesthesia revolutionized ability of surgeons to dive deeper into the human substance and open up heretofore forbidding regions of disease and disorder.


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Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Mississippi Medical CenterJacksonUSA
  2. 2.Centre Hépato-BiliaireHôpital Universitaire Paul BrousseVillejuifFrance

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