Evolution of Surface Topography During Wear Process

  • Deepak K. Prajapati
  • Mayank TiwariEmail author
Part of the Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology book series (MFMT)


There is an increasing demand for high power density (power throughput/weight) machines such as wind turbines, gear boxes, electric drive trains, and turbines. This requires design of heavily loaded tribological components such as bearings, gears, CVT etc., for preventing surface failure. Tribology analyzes surface contacts between two bodies which are in relative motion. To separate contacting surfaces lubricant is supplied between contacts which form a film. In lubricated non-conformal concentrated contacts (e.g. gears, bearings, cams etc.), it is always desirable to run the components in elastohydrodynamic regime for longer life and negligible wear. However, what is achieved is mostly boundary and mixed lubrication regimes. This is because it is almost impossible to create a surface with negligible roughness. The reason is manufacturing and machining processes by which solid components are produced. During the material processing, texture form on the surface of the components which is in form of roughness, waviness and form. The cavities, voids, inclusions are also induced on the surface during heat treatment. When components are subjected to rolling/sliding motion, these defects (roughness and inclusions) act as stress raisers which is responsible for the crack initiation and crack propagation and ultimately material fails due to material degradations in form of tiny particles (e.g. micro pitting) or in form of spall (macro pitting). Recently, the research has been focused on effect of surface topography on the life of tribological components. This chapter demonstrates the determination of important surface topography parameters by using statistical and fractal methods. Later on, evolution of topography parameters during the wear process is explored in detail and it will be shown that surface topography parameters significantly vary during wear.


Wear Surface roughness Lay Waviness Form Statistical and fractal methods 


  1. 1.
    D.K. Prajapati, Evolution of surface topography parameters for tribological components under rolling and sliding motion. Ph.D. Thesis (IIT, Patna, India, 2020), 1–199Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.K. Prajapati, M. Tiwari, The relation between fractal signature and topography parameters: a numerical and experimental. Surf. Topogr.: Metrol. Prop. 6, 045008 (2018)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D.K. Prajapati, M. Tiwari, Topography analysis of random anisotropic gaussian rough surfaces. ASME J. Tribol. 139, 041402 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.S. Sayles, T.R. Thomas, Thermal conductance of rough elastic contact. Appl. Energy 2(4), 249–267 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. Xiao, B.G. Rosen, N. Amini, P.H. Nilsson, A Study on the effect of surface topography on rough friction in roller contact. Wear 254(11), 1162–1169 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    D.K. Lawrence, R. Shanmugamani, B. Ramamurthy, Evaluation of image based abbott-firestone curve parameters using machine vision for the characterization of cylinder liner surface topography. Wear 55, 318–334 (2014)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B.B. Mandelbrot, The fractal geometry of nature (W.H. Freeman and Company, NY, USA, 1983). ISBN 0-7167-1186-9Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. Xu, R.L. Jackson, Statistical models of nearly complete elastic rough surface contact-comparison with numerical solutions. Tribol. Int. 105, 274–291 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    C.Q. Yuan, J. Li, P. Yan, Z. Peng, The use of the fractal description to characterize engineering surfaces and wear particles. Wear 255 (1–6), 315–326 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Z.Q. Mu, C.W. Lung, Studies on fractal dimension and facture toughness of steel. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, 848–850Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.K. Jha, D.S. Singh, S. Gupta, A. Ray, Fractal analysis of crack initiation in polycrystalline alloys using surface interferometry. EPL 98, 44006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    B.N.J. Persson, On the fractal dimension of rough surfaces. Tribol. Lett. 54(1), 99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. Podsiadlo, G.W. Stachowiak, Analysis of trabecular bone texture by modified Hurst orientation transform method. Med. Phys. 29(4), 460–474 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Wolski, P. Podsiadlo, G.W. Stachowiak, Applications of the variance orientation transform method to the multiscale characterization of surface roughness and anisotropy. Tribol. Int. 43 (11), 2203–2215 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Holmberg, A. Laukkanen, H. Ronkainen, R. Waudby, G. Stachowiak, M. Wolski, P. Podsiadlo, M. Gee, J. Nunn, C. Gachot, L. Li, Topographical orientation effects on friction and wear in sliding DLC and steel contacts, part 1: Experimental. Wear (330–331), 3–22 (2015)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.A. Greenwood, J.B.P. Williamson, Contact of nominally flat surfaces. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 295, 300–319 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    V.A. Yastrebov, G. Anciaux, J.F. Molinari, From infinitesimal to full contact between rough surfaces: evolution of the contact area. Int. J. Solids Struct. 52, 83–102 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    E.T. George, H. Liang, Mechanical tribology: materials, characterization, and applications (CRC Press, Boca Raton, US, 2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Xie, J.A. Williams, The prediction of friction and wear when a soft surface slides against a harder rough surface. Wear 196 (1–21), 21–34 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D.V. De Pellegrin, A.A. Torrance, E. Haran, Wear mechanisms and scale effects in two-body abrasion. Wear 266(1– 9), 13–20 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S.K. Roy Chowdhury, H. Kaliszer, G.W. Rowe, An analysis of changes in surface topography during running-in of plain bearings. Wear 57(2), 331–343 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    K.J. Stout, T.G. King, D.J. Whitehouse, Analytical techniques in surface topography and their application to a running-in experiment. Wear 43(1), 99–115 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D.K. Prajapati, M. Tiwari, 3D numerical wear model for determining the change in surface topography. Surf. Topogr.: Metrol. Prop. 6, 045006Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    D.K. Prajapati, M. Tiwari, 2D numerical wear model for determining the change in surface topography with number of wear cycles, in Proceedings of Asia International Conference on Tribology, vol. 2018, pp. 233–234 (2018)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyPatnaIndia

Personalised recommendations