Studied Regions and Methodology

  • Gustavo Hallwass
  • Pedro Peixoto Nitschke
  • Friedrich W. Keppeler


This chapter describes the studied regions, ecological characteristics of the rivers, protected areas and their historical establishment, and the three main methodological approaches applied in this book (fish sampling, interviews, and participatory monitoring of fish landings). The research was conducted in 16 riverine communities, eight inside and eight outside of the Extractive Reserves in the Tapajós (clear water) and Negro (black water) rivers, Brazilian Amazon. A total of 13,624 individuals of 224 fish species (~859 kg) were sampled. Interviews were conducted with 281 fishers in the 16 communities from both rivers. A total of 171 fishers were invited and individually trained to record their own fish landings during a year, 92 in the Tapajós and 79 in the Negro river. In total, 3830 fish landings recorded were analyzed, 2354 in the Tapajós and 1476 in the Negro river.


Fish sampling Interviews Participatory monitoring Citizen science Small-scale fisheries Fish ecology 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gustavo Hallwass
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pedro Peixoto Nitschke
    • 3
  • Friedrich W. Keppeler
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará (UFOPA), Campus OriximináOriximináBrazil
  2. 2.FIFO (Fisheries and Food Institute)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Sul (UFRGS), Departamento de ZoologiaPorto AlegreBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Wildlife and Fisheries SciencesTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  5. 5.Center for LimnologyUW-MadisonMadisonUSA

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