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Small-scale Fisheries, Livelihoods, and Food Security of Riverine People

  • Gustavo Hallwass
  • Luís Henrique Tomazoni da Silva
  • Paula Nagl
  • Mariana Clauzet
  • Alpina Begossi
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Abstract

This chapter describes the dynamics of Small-Scale Fisheries (SSF) in two large and less-studied Amazonian rivers, the Tapajós and Negro, comparing fishing communities inside and outside Extractive Reserves (ER) in both rivers. The data presented in this chapter are based on interviews (n = 281 fishers) and participatory fisheries monitoring, on which fishers recorded their catches, producing a total of 3830 records and 44,369.63 kg of fish caught. Interviewed fishers have a long time of fishing experience in the studied region. The fishing frequency is high (most fishers go fish more than three times a week), and paddled and motorized canoes were the most used vessels during fishing trips; gillnets were the most employed fishing gear, followed by handlines and harpoons. Fishers from outside ER in both rivers have a higher production (biomass) of fish per fishing trip but employed more fishing effort (time spent fishing). The fishing productivity measures as catch per unit of effort (CPUE in kg/fisher/hour) showed similar values between outside and inside ER in Tapajós river, while communities inside ER in Negro river showed the lowest values of CPUE, possibly due to the use of more selective fishing gears. Ecological, local, and socioeconomic factors influenced the composition of fish catches. The type of river (ecological factor) and, mainly, the fishing communities (local and socioeconomic factor) had a higher influence on fish species composition than location inside or outside ERs and seasonality.

Keywords

Tapajos river Negro river Fisheries management Fishing dynamics Fishing gear Seasonality 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gustavo Hallwass
    • 1
    • 2
  • Luís Henrique Tomazoni da Silva
    • 3
  • Paula Nagl
    • 4
    • 5
  • Mariana Clauzet
    • 6
  • Alpina Begossi
    • 7
    • 8
    • 9
  1. 1.Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará (UFOPA), Campus OriximináOriximináBrazil
  2. 2.FIFO (Fisheries and Food Institute)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Sul (UFRGS), Departamento de ZoologiaPorto AlegreBrazil
  4. 4.Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Sul (UFRGS), Departamento de ZoologiaPorto AlegreBrazil
  5. 5.Caraïbes Environnement DéveloppementBaie MahaultFrance
  6. 6.PPED-Políticas Públicas, Estratégias e Desenvolvimento, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  7. 7.FIFO (Fisheries and Food Institute)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  8. 8.Capesca, Nepa, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp)CampinasBrazil
  9. 9.Graduate Program, Universidade Santa CeciliaSantosBrazil

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