Open and Closed Strings
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 973)
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In addition to the theory of closed strings just described, we may construct another consistent theory by considering world-sheets Σ with boundaries. Such a theory necessarily contains open strings. In this case, we can insert open string states to the boundaries and closed string states to the bulk of Σ as in Fig. 4.1.
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