Open and Closed Strings

  • Martin Doubek
  • Branislav Jurčo
  • Martin Markl
  • Ivo Sachs
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 973)


In addition to the theory of closed strings just described, we may construct another consistent theory by considering world-sheets Σ with boundaries. Such a theory necessarily contains open strings. In this case, we can insert open string states to the boundaries and closed string states to the bulk of Σ as in Fig. 4.1.
Fig. 4.1

Open-closed world-sheet with open string punctures on the boundary and closed string punctures in the bulk

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Doubek
    • 1
  • Branislav Jurčo
    • 2
  • Martin Markl
    • 3
  • Ivo Sachs
    • 4
  1. 1.Mathematical Institute Faculty of Mathematics and Physics(1982-2016) Dr. Doubek wrote this book while at Charles UniversityPragueCzech Republic
  2. 2.Mathematical Institute Faculty of Mathematics and PhysicsCharles UniversityPragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.Institute of MathematicsCzech Academy of SciencesPragueCzech Republic
  4. 4.Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical PhysicsLudwig-Maximilian-University of MunichMünchenGermany

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