Embryology of the Pineal Gland

  • Alexis Rafael Narváez-Rojas
  • Juan Bosco González-Torres
  • Ali A. Dolachee
  • Ali Odai Mahmood


The pineal gland (epiphysis cerebri) has an important role in the sleep/wake daily cycle (circadian), high melatonin plasma levels at nighttime and very low levels at daytime, and reproductive development. The embryological stages of the pineal gland divide into three which are morphogenic, proliferative, and glandular hypertrophy. Through this chapter we try to present the different investigations that have been made in mammals about new cellular and molecular aspects found in the different stages mainly in the proliferative phase.


Embryology Pineal Circadian Morphogenic Proliferative Glandular 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexis Rafael Narváez-Rojas
    • 1
  • Juan Bosco González-Torres
    • 2
  • Ali A. Dolachee
    • 3
  • Ali Odai Mahmood
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryCarlos Roberto Huembes HospitalManaguaNicaragua
  2. 2.Pediatric Neurosurgery“Manuel de Jesus Rivera” Children’s Hospital, Hospital BautistaManaguaNicaragua
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryCollege of Medicine, University of Al-QadisiyahDiwaniyahIraq
  4. 4.Department of NeurosurgeryNeurosurgery Teaching HospitalBaghdadIraq

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