Anatomy of the Pineal Gland

  • Alexis Rafael Narváez-Rojas
  • Ali A. Dolachee
  • Aktham O. Alkhafaji
  • Mustafa E. Almurayati
  • Mohammed Ali Al-Dhahir
  • Hayder R. Salih


The pineal gland (PG) is a unique, small-sized endocrine organ. It forms an appendix from the caudal end of the diencephalon that includes the pineal recess of the third ventricle. The pineal gland is a small reddish-gray structure, composed of gray matter. The pineal gland is essentially an extra-axial structure, and it is surrounded by the posterior commissure ventrally, the corpus callosum superiorly, and the habenular commissure dorsally. There is no consensus regarding the volume of the pineal gland in humans. Pineal gland grows in size from birth until 2 years of age and then remains constant between 2 and 20 years of age. The pineal gland represents a copious vascularization that blood flow has been established to be approximately 4 mL/min. There are gender differences in terms of venous structure in the pineal gland. The PG is innervated by sympathetic fibers originating in the central nervous system.


Pineal Anatomy Blood Venous Innervation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexis Rafael Narváez-Rojas
    • 1
  • Ali A. Dolachee
    • 2
  • Aktham O. Alkhafaji
    • 3
  • Mustafa E. Almurayati
    • 3
  • Mohammed Ali Al-Dhahir
    • 4
  • Hayder R. Salih
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryCarlos Roberto Huembes HospitalManaguaNicaragua
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryCollege of Medicine, University of Al-QadisiyahDiwaniyahIraq
  3. 3.College of MedicineUniversity of BaghdadBaghdadIraq
  4. 4.Department of NeurosurgeryYemeni German HospitalSana’aYemen
  5. 5.Neurosurgery Teaching HospitalBaghdadIraq

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