Advertisement

Anatomy of the Pineal Gland

  • Alexis Rafael Narváez-Rojas
  • Ali A. Dolachee
  • Aktham O. Alkhafaji
  • Mustafa E. Almurayati
  • Mohammed Ali Al-Dhahir
  • Hayder R. Salih
Chapter
  • 41 Downloads

Abstract

The pineal gland (PG) is a unique, small-sized endocrine organ. It forms an appendix from the caudal end of the diencephalon that includes the pineal recess of the third ventricle. The pineal gland is a small reddish-gray structure, composed of gray matter. The pineal gland is essentially an extra-axial structure, and it is surrounded by the posterior commissure ventrally, the corpus callosum superiorly, and the habenular commissure dorsally. There is no consensus regarding the volume of the pineal gland in humans. Pineal gland grows in size from birth until 2 years of age and then remains constant between 2 and 20 years of age. The pineal gland represents a copious vascularization that blood flow has been established to be approximately 4 mL/min. There are gender differences in terms of venous structure in the pineal gland. The PG is innervated by sympathetic fibers originating in the central nervous system.

Keywords

Pineal Anatomy Blood Venous Innervation 

References

  1. 1.
    Choudhry O, Gupta G, Prestigiacomo CJ. On the surgery of the seat of the soul: the pineal gland and the history of its surgical approaches. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2011;22(3):321–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Simon E, Afif A, M’Baye M, Mertens P. Anatomy of the pineal region applied to its surgical approach. Neurochirurgie. 2015;61(2–3):70–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vollrath L. The pineal organ. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 1981. p. 665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shoja MM, Hoepfner LD, Agutter PS, Singh R, Tubbs RS. History of the pineal gland. Child’s Nerv Syst. Springer Berlin, Heidelberg; 2016;32(4):583–586.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Smith CUM. Descartes’ pineal neuropsychology. Brain Cogn. 1998;36(1):57–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zrenner C. Theories of pineal function from classical antiquity to 1900: a history. Pinea Res Rev. 1985;3:1–40.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lokhorst G-JC, Kaitaro TT. The originality of Descartes theory about the pineal gland. J Hist Neurosci. 2001;10(1):6–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lopez-Munoz F, Marín F, Alamo C. The historical background of the pineal gland: I. from a spiritual valve to the seat of the soul. Rev Neurol. 2010;50(1):50–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Favaron PO, Mançanares CA, De Carvalho AF, Ambrósio CE, Leiser R, Miglino MA. Gross and microscopic anatomy of the pineal gland in nasua nasua–coati (linnaeus, 1766). Anat Histol Embryol. 2008;37(6):464–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Anderson CR, Penkethman SL, Bergner AJ, McAllen RM, Murphy SM. Control of postganglionic neurone phenotype by the rat pineal gland. Neuroscience. 2002;109(2):329–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Koshy S, Vettivel S. Melanin pigments in human pineal gland. J Anat Soc India. 2001;50(2):122–6.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Calvo JL, Boya J, García-Mauriño JE, Rancaño D. Presence of melanin in the cat pineal gland. Acta Anat (Basel). 1992;145(1):73–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lima EMM, Santiana MIS, Castro MB, Benedicto HG, Ferreira PM, Vianna ARCB. Microstructure and morphoquantitative study of pineal gland in santa ines sheep/Estudo morfoquantitativo e da microestrutura da glândula pineal em ovinos Santa Inês. Ars Vet. 2011;27(3):186–91.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kahilogullari G, Ugur HC, Comert A, Brohi RA, Ozgural O, Ozdemir M, et al. Arterial vascularization of the pineal gland. Childs Nerv Syst. 2013;29(10):1835–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zang-Hee C, Sang-Han C, Je-Gun C, Young-Bo K. Classification of the venous architecture of the pineal gland by 7 T MRI. J Neuroradiol. 2011;38:238–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Møller M, Baeres FM. The anatomy and innervation of the mammalian pineal gland. Cell Tissue Res. 2002;309(1):139–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexis Rafael Narváez-Rojas
    • 1
  • Ali A. Dolachee
    • 2
  • Aktham O. Alkhafaji
    • 3
  • Mustafa E. Almurayati
    • 3
  • Mohammed Ali Al-Dhahir
    • 4
  • Hayder R. Salih
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryCarlos Roberto Huembes HospitalManaguaNicaragua
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryCollege of Medicine, University of Al-QadisiyahDiwaniyahIraq
  3. 3.College of MedicineUniversity of BaghdadBaghdadIraq
  4. 4.Department of NeurosurgeryYemeni German HospitalSana’aYemen
  5. 5.Neurosurgery Teaching HospitalBaghdadIraq

Personalised recommendations