Physiology of the Pineal Gland

  • Alexis Rafael Narváez-Rojas
  • Luis R. Moscote-Salazar
  • Ali A. Dolachee
  • Mohammed Ameen Alrawi
  • Ali M. Neamah
  • Saja A. AlBanaa


The descriptions of the pineal gland go back to antiquity, but its functions in humans are little known. The PG has a principal action of secreting hormones, mainly the melatonin. Melatonin is secreted according to the presence of stimuli from the external environment through light changes. New advances in the physiology of the pineal gland are the molecular description of melatonin receptors. The physiological significance of pineal characters other than melatonin and pineal peptides has not yet been thoroughly understood.


Physiology Melatonin Molecular Pineal Light Night 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexis Rafael Narváez-Rojas
    • 1
  • Luis R. Moscote-Salazar
    • 2
  • Ali A. Dolachee
    • 3
  • Mohammed Ameen Alrawi
    • 4
  • Ali M. Neamah
    • 5
  • Saja A. AlBanaa
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryCarlos Roberto Huembes HospitalManaguaNicaragua
  2. 2.Department of Neurosurgery, Cartagena Neurotrauma Research Group (CIB)University of CartagenaBolívarColombia
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryCollege of Medicine, University of Al-QadisiyahDiwaniyahIraq
  4. 4.Department of NeurosurgeryNeurosurgery Teaching HospitalBaghdadIraq
  5. 5.College of MedicineUniversity of BaghdadBaghdadIraq

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