Neuroimaging of the Pineal Gland

  • Hernando Alvis-Miranda
  • Kalil Kafury-Benedetti
  • Osvaldo Molina-Olier
  • Fernando Ponce-Iglesias
  • Mustafa Adnan Shamkhi


Pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ that influences circadian rhythm and sleep by the secretion of melatonin. The functions of the pineal gland are not fully understood. Tumors in the pineal region still represent a heavy task for the neurosurgeon, sometimes because a histological diagnosis is not feasible, or because neuroimaging is not conclusive, or just for the fact that accessing to such deep structures requires an advanced knowledge of the anatomy and the surgical approaches to the gland.


Imaging CT MRI Pineal Pineocytoma Germinoma 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hernando Alvis-Miranda
    • 1
  • Kalil Kafury-Benedetti
    • 2
  • Osvaldo Molina-Olier
    • 2
  • Fernando Ponce-Iglesias
    • 2
  • Mustafa Adnan Shamkhi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of Cartagena, Colombian Foundation Center for Epilepsy and Neurological Diseases—FIRECartagenaColombia
  2. 2.Colombian Foundation Center for Epilepsy and Neurological Diseases—FIRECartagenaColombia
  3. 3.Department of NeurosurgeryNeurosurgery Teaching HospitalBaghdadIraq

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