Controlling Parameters on Facies Geometries of the Bahamas, an Isolated Carbonate Platform Environment

  • Kelly L. BergmanEmail author
  • Hildegard Westphal
  • Xavier Janson
  • Anthony Poiriez
  • Gregor P. Eberli


The Bahamas are among the most extensively studied carbonate regions in the world, and a number of phenomena typical of calcareous environments have been first observed in the Bahamas. Early geological research in the Bahamas was undertaken by Nelson (1853B) who surveyed their geography and topography. He noticed the “remarkable lowness of profile” and the dynamics of construction and destruction of the islands, outlined the biota and lithologies, described the formation of the carbonate rocks, and noticed the eolian origin of many Bahamian islands. Forty years later, the examination of modern carbonate environments rapidly progressed with the expedition of L. and A. Agassiz in 1893 (Agassiz 1894). Their explorations focused mainly on the fringing reefs of GE Great Bahama Bank. Research on abiotic carbonate components followed, by Vaughan (1914) who emphasized that carbonate constituents can originate from both skeletal secretion and chemical precipitation, and introduced the terms “organic” and “inorganic” limestones. Black (1933) first characterized the sedimentary facies on Great Bahama Bank and noted the significance of the widespread aragonitic mud. The sand-sized calcareous components of the Bahamas and their origin, including ooid sands, were described in detail in the classic papers by Illing (1954) and Newell et al. (1960).


Tidal Flat Patch Reef Sand Body Leeward Side Sand Wave 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abegg FE, Loope DB, Harris PM (2001) Carbonate eolianites – depositional models and diagenesis. In: Abegg FE, Harris PM, Loope DB (eds) Modern and ancient carbonate eolianites. SEPM Spec Publ 71:17–30Google Scholar
  2. Abel CE, Tracy BA, Vincent CL, Jensen RE (1989) Hurricane hindcast methodology and wave statistics for Atlantic and Gulf Hurricanes from 1956–1975. WIS Report 19. Coastal Engineering Research Center. Vicksburg, Mississippi, p 85Google Scholar
  3. Acker KL, Risk MJ (1985) Substrate destruction and sediment production by the boring sponge Cliona caribbaeaon Grand Cayman Island. J Sed Petrol 55:705–711Google Scholar
  4. Adey WH, Macintyre IG (1973) Crustose coralline algae: a re-evaluation in the geological sciences. GSA Bull 84:883–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agassiz A (1894) A reconnaissance of the Bahamas and of the elevated reefs of Cuba in the team yacht “Wild Duck”, January to April, 1893. Bull Mus Comp Zool Harvard Coll 17:1–281Google Scholar
  6. Andrews JE, Shepard FP, Hurley RJ (1970) Great Bahama Canyon. GSA Bull 81:1061–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anselmetti FS, Eberli GP, Ding Z (2000) From the Great Bahama Bank into the Straits of Florida: a margin architecture controlled by sea-level fluctuations and ocean currents. GSA Bull 112:829–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Atkinson LP, Berger T, Hamilton P, Waddell E, Leaman K, Lee TN (1995) Current meter observations in the Old Bahama Channel. J Geophys Res 100:8555–8560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ball MM (1967) Carbonate sand bodies of Florida and the Bahamas. J Sed Petrol 37:556–591Google Scholar
  10. Ball MM (1972) Exploration methods for stratigraphic traps in carbonate rocks. In: King RE (ed) Stratigraphic oil and gas fields – classification, exploration methods and case histories. AAPG Mem 16:64–81Google Scholar
  11. Ball MM, Harrison CGA, Hurley RJ, Leist CE (1969) Bathymetry in the vicinity of the northeastern scarp of the Great Bahama Bank and Exuma Sound. Bull Mar Sci 19:243–252Google Scholar
  12. Bathurst RGC (1975) Carbonate sediments and their diagenesis. Developments in Sedimentology 12, Elsevier, p 658Google Scholar
  13. Beach DK (1982) Depositional and diagenetic history of Pliocene-Pleistocene carbonates of Northwestern Great Bahama Bank; Evolution of a carbonate platform. Ph.D. thesis, University of Miami, p 447Google Scholar
  14. Beach DK, Ginsburg RN (1980) Facies succession of Pliocene-Pleistocene carbonates, northwestern Great Bahama Bank. AAPG Bull 64:1634–1642Google Scholar
  15. Bergman KL (2004) Seismic analysis of paleocurrent features in the Florida Straits: insights into the paleocurrent, upstream tectonics, and the Atlantic-Caribbean connection. Ph.D. thesis, University of Miami, p 190Google Scholar
  16. Bernet KH, Eberli GP, Anselmetti FS (1998) The role of orbital precession in creating marl/limestone alternations, Neogene, Santaren Channel, Bahamas. 15th international sedimentological congress, Alicante, Abstract: 191–192Google Scholar
  17. Bernet K, Eberli GP, Gilli A (2000) Turbidite frequency and composition in the distal part of the Bahamas. In: Swart PK, Eberli GP, Malone M, Sarg JF (eds) Proceedings of ODP, Sci. Results, 166: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), pp 45–60Google Scholar
  18. Betzler C, Reijmer JJG, Bernet K, Eberli GP, Frank T, Anselmetti FS (1999) Sedimentary patterns and geometries of the Bahamian outer carbonate ramp (Miocene and Lower Pliocene, Great Bahama Bank). Sedimentology 46:1127–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Black M (1933) The precipitation of calcium carbonate on the Great Bahama Bank. Geol Mag 832:455–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blair SM, Norris JN (1988) The deep-water species of Halimeda lamouroux(Halimedaceae, Chlorophyta) from San-Salvador Island, Bahamas – species composition, distribution and depth records. Coral Reefs 6:227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boardman MR, Neumann CA (1984) Sources of periplatform carbonates: Northwest Providence Channel, Bahamas. J Sed Petrol 54:1110–1123Google Scholar
  22. Boothroyd JC, Hubbard DK (1975) Genesis of bedforms in mesotidal estuaries. In: Cronin LE (ed) Estuarine research, Geology and Engineering, 2. Academic, New York, pp 217–234Google Scholar
  23. Bosart LF, Schwartz BE (1979) Autumnal rainfall climatology of the Bahamas. Mon Weather Rev 107:1663–1672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bosence D (1989) Aspects of carbonate deposition in the Caribbean. Proceedings Cumberland Geological Society 5(2):235–236Google Scholar
  25. Boss SK, Neumann AC (1993) Impact of Hurricane Andrew on carbonate platform environments, northern Great Bahama Bank. Geology 21:897–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Boss SK, Rasmussen KA (1995) Misuse of Fischer plots as sea-level curves. Geology 23:221–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bosscher H, Schlager W (1992) Computer-simulation of reef growth. Sedimentology 39:503–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bourrouilh-Le Jan FG (1980) Hydrologie des nappes d’eau superficielles de l’ile Andros, Bahama; dolomitisation et diagenese de plaine d’estran en climat tropical humide. Bull des Centres de Recherches Exploration-Production Elf-Aquitaine 4(2):661–707Google Scholar
  29. Broecker WS, Sanyal A, Takahashi T (2000) The origin of Bahamian whitings revisited. Geophys Res Lett 27:3759–3760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Broecker WS, Takahashi T (1966) Calcium carbonate precipitation on the Bahamas Banks. J Geophys Res 71:1575–1602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bruggemann JH, van Kessel AM, van Rooij JM, Breeman AM (1996) Bioerosion and sediment ingestion by the Caribbean parrotfisch Scarus vetulaand Sparisoma viride: implications of fish size, feeding mode and habitat use. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 134:59–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Budd DA, Land LS (1989) Geochemical imprint of meteoric diagenesis in Holocene ooid sands, Schooner Cays, Bahamas; correlation of calcite cement geochemistry with extant groundwaters. J Sed Petrol 60:361–378Google Scholar
  33. Bullard EG, Everett JE, Smith AG (1965) The fit of the continents around the Atlantic. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser A 1088:41–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Burchette TP, Wright VP (1992) Carbonate ramp depositional systems. Sed Geol 79:3–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Caputo MV (1993) Eolian structures and textures in oolitic-skeletal calcarenites from the Quaternary of San Salvador Island, Bahamas; a new perspective on eolian limestones. In: Keith BD, Zuppann CW (eds) Mississippian oolites and modern analogs. AAPG Stud Geo 35:243–259Google Scholar
  36. Carew JL, Mylroie JE (1995) Depositional model and stratigraphy for the Quaternary geology of the Bahama Islands. In: Curran HA, White B (eds) Terrestrial and shallow marine geology of the Bahamas and Bermuda. GSA Special Paper 300:5–32Google Scholar
  37. Carew JL, Mylroie JE (1997) Geology of the Bahamas. In: Vacher HL, Quinn TM (eds) Geology and Hydrogeology of carbonate islands. Developments in Sedimentology 54, Elsevier, pp 91–140Google Scholar
  38. Carew JL, Mylroie JE (2001) Quaternary carbonate eolianites of the Bahamas: useful analogues for the interpretation of ancient rocks? In: Abegg FE, Harris PM, Loope DB (eds) Modern and ancient carbonate eolianites. SEPM Spec Publ 71:33–46Google Scholar
  39. Chalker BE, Barnes DJ, Dunlap WC, Jokiel PL (1988) Light and reef-building coral. Interdiscipl Sci Rev 13:22–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chiappone M, Sullivan KM, Sluka R (1997a) Reef invertebrates of the Exuma Cays, Bahamas: Part 1 – corals. Bahamas J Sci 4:30–36Google Scholar
  41. Chiappone M, Sullivan KM, Sluka R (1997b) Reef invertebrates of the Exuma Cays, Bahamas: Part 2 – octocorals, Part 1 – corals, continued. Bahamas J Sci 4:28–30Google Scholar
  42. Chiappone M, Sullivan KM, Lott C (1996) Hermatypic Scleractinian corals of the southeastern Bahamas: a comparison to western Atlantic reef systems. Carib J Sci 32:1–13Google Scholar
  43. Cloud PE Jr (1962) Environment of Calcium Carbonate deposition west of Andros Island, Bahamas. USGS Prof Paper 35:494Google Scholar
  44. Craton M (1986) A history of the Bahamas, 3rd edn. San Salvador Press, Waterloo Ontario, p 332Google Scholar
  45. Crevello PD, Schlager W (1980) Carbonate debris sheets and turbidites, Exuma Sound, Bahamas. J Sed Petrol 50:1121–1148Google Scholar
  46. Crutcher HL, Quayle RG (1974) Mariners world-wide climatic guide to tropical storms at sea. Naval Weather Service Command, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, p 246Google Scholar
  47. Cry GW (1965) Tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean: tracks and frequencies of hurricanes and tropical storms, 1871–1963. U. S. Weather Bureau Technical Paper 55:148Google Scholar
  48. Curran HA, White B (2001) The inchology of Holocene carbonate eolianites of the Bahamas. In: Abegg FE, Harris PM, Loope DB (eds) Modern and ancient carbonate eolianites. SEPM Spec Publ 71:47–56Google Scholar
  49. Dietz RS, Holden JC (1973) Geotectonic evolution and subsidence of Bahama platform, reply. GSA Bull 84:3477–3482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dietz RS, Holden JC, Sproll WP (1970) Geotectonic evolution and subsidence of Bahama platform. GSA Bull 81:1915–1927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dill RF, Shinn EA, Jones AT, Kelly K, Steinen RP (1986) Giant stromatolites forming in normal salinity water. Nature 324:55–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dix GR, Patterson RT, Park LE (1999) Marine saline ponds as sedimentary archives of late Holocene climate and sea-level variation along a carbonate platform margin; Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 150:223–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Doran E (1955) Land forms of the southeastern Bahamas. University of Texas Publications: 5509, p 38Google Scholar
  54. Dravis JJ (1982) Hardened subtidal stromatolites, Bahamas. Science 219:385–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dravis JJ (1979) Rapid and widespread generation of Recent oolitic hardgrounds on a high energy Bahamian platform, Eleuthra Bank, Bahamas. J Sed Petrol 49:195–208Google Scholar
  56. Dravis JJ (1977) Holocene sedimentary depositional environments on Eleuthera Bank, Bahamas. M.S. thesis, University of Miami, p 386Google Scholar
  57. Droxler AW, Schlager W (1985) Glacial versus interglacial sedimentation rates and turbidite frequency in the Bahamas. Geology 13:799–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Droxler AW, Schlager W, Whallon CC (1983) Quaternary aragonite cycles and oxygen-isotope record in Bahamian Carbonate ooze. Geology 11:235–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Dunham RJ (1962) Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. In: Ham WE (ed) Classification of carbonate rocks. AAPG Mem 1:108–121Google Scholar
  60. Eberli GP (2000) The record of Neogene sea-level changes in the prograding carbonates along the Bahamas Transect – Leg 166 synthesis. Proceedings of ODP, Sci. Results, 166: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), pp 167–177Google Scholar
  61. Eberli GP, Ginsburg RN (1987) Segmentation and coalescence of platforms, Tertiary, NW Great Bahama Bank. Geology 15:75–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Eberli GP, Ginsburg RN (1989) Cenozoic progradation of NW Great Bahama Bank – A record of lateral platform growth and sea-level fluctuations. In: Crevello PD, Wilson JL, Sarg JF, Read JF (eds) Controls on carbonate platform and basin evolution. SEPM Spec Pub 44:339–351Google Scholar
  63. Eberli GP, Grammer GM, Harris PM (1998) Sequence stratigraphy and reservoir distribution in a modern carbonate platform. AAPG core workshop and field seminar, Guidebook, p 670Google Scholar
  64. Eberli GP, Kendall CGStC, Moore P, Whittle GL, Cannon R (1994) Testing a seismic interpretation of Great Bahama Bank with a computer simulation. AAPG Bull 78:981–1004Google Scholar
  65. Eberli GP, Swart PK, Malone M (1997a) Scientific Party. Proceedings of ODP, Init Repts, 166: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), p 850Google Scholar
  66. Eberli GP, Swart PK, McNeill DF, Kenter JAM, Anselmetti FS, Melim LA, Ginsburg RN (1997b) A synopsis of the Bahamas Drilling Project: results from two deep core borings drilled in the Great Bahama Bank. In: Eberli GP, Swart PK, Malone MJ et al (eds) Proceedings of ODP, Init Repts, 166: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), pp 23–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Eberli GP, Anselmetti FS, Kenter JAM, McNeill DF, Ginsburg RN, Swart PK, Melim LA (2001) Calibration of seismic sequence stratigraphy with cores and logs. In: Ginsburg RN (ed) Subsurface geology of a prograding carbonate platform margin, Great Bahama Bank: results of the Bahamas drilling project. SEPM Spec Publ 70:241–266Google Scholar
  68. Emiliani C (1965) Precipitous continental slopes and considerations on the transitional crust. Science 147:145–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Enos P (1974) Map of surface sediment facies of the Florida-Bahama Plateau. GSA Map Series MC-5, Boulder, COGoogle Scholar
  70. Enos P (1983) Shelf environment. In: Scholle PA, Bebout DG, Moore CH (ed) Carbonate depositional environments. AAPG Mem 33:267–295Google Scholar
  71. Enos P (1991) Sedimentary parameters for computer modeling. In: Franseen EK, Watney WL, Kendall CSCG, Ross W (eds) Sedimentary modeling: computer simulation and methods for improved parameters definition. Bulletin of the Kansas Geological Survey 233:63–99Google Scholar
  72. Enos P, Perkins RD (1977) Quaternary sedimentation in South Florida. GSA Mem 147:198Google Scholar
  73. Ericsson DB, Ewing M, Heezen B (1952) Turbidity currents and sediments in the North Atlantic. AAPG Bull 36:489–511Google Scholar
  74. Fabricius FH (1977) Origin of marine ooids and grapestones. Contributions in Sedimentology 7, Schweitzerbart, Stuttgart, p 113Google Scholar
  75. Freeman-Lynde RP, Cita MA, Jadoul F, Miller EL, Ryan WVF (1981) Marine geology of the Bahama escarpment. Mar Geol 44:119–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Freile D, Milliman JD, Hillis L (1995) Leeward bank margin Halimedameadows and draperies and their sedimentary importance on the western Great Bahama Bank slope. Coral Reefs 14:27–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Fütterer DK (1974) Significance of the boring sponge Clionafor the origin of fine grained material of carbonate sediments. J Sed Petrol 44:79–84Google Scholar
  78. Gabb WM (1873) Topography and geology of Santo Domingo. Trans Am Phil Soc, n ser 15:49–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Garrett P, Gould SJ (1984) Geology of New Providence Island, Bahamas. GSA Bull 95:209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Gebelein CD (1974) Guidebook for the modern bahamian platform environments. GSA Annual Meeting Fieldtrip Guide, p 93Google Scholar
  81. Gebelein CD, Steinen RP, Garrett P, Hoffman EJ, Queen JM, Plummer LN (1980) Subsurface dolomitization beneath the tidal flats of central west Andros Island, Bahamas. In: Zenger DH, Dunham JB, Ethington RL (eds) Concepts and models of dolomitization. SEPM Spec Publ 28:31–49Google Scholar
  82. Gibson TG, Schlee J (1967) Sediments and fossiliferous rocks from the eastern side of the Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. Deep-Sea Research 14:691–702Google Scholar
  83. Ginsburg RN, Shinn EA (1964) Distribution of the reef building community in Florida and the Bahamas. AAPG Bull 48:527Google Scholar
  84. Ginsburg RN (1976) Sedimentary record of paleoclimate in carbonate tidal flats. AAPG Bull 60:874–875Google Scholar
  85. Ginsburg RN (ed) (2001) Subsurface geology of a prograding carbonate platform margin. SEPM Spec Publ 70:207Google Scholar
  86. Ginsburg RN, James NP (1974) Holocene carbonate sediments of continental shelves. In: Burk CA, Drake CL (eds) Continental margins. Springer, New York, pp 137–155Google Scholar
  87. Ginsburg RN, Harris PM, Eberli GP, Swart PK (1991) The growth potential of a bypass margin, Great Bahama Bank. J Sed Petrol 61:976–987Google Scholar
  88. Ginsburg RN, Shinn EA (1994) Preferential distribution of reefs in the Florida reef tract: the past is the key to the present. In: Ginsburg RN (ed) Proceedings colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs: health, hazards, and history. RSMAS Univ Miami, p 21–27Google Scholar
  89. Gonzalez R, Eberli GP (1997) Sediment transport and sedimentary structures in a carbonate tidal inlet; Lee Stocking Island, Exumas Islands, Bahamas. Sedimentology 44:1015–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Glockhoff C (1973) Geotectonic evolution and subsidence of Bahama platform; discussion. GSA Bull 84:3473–3476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Grammer GM, Ginsburg RN (1992) Highstand versus lowstand deposition on carbonate platform margins – insight from quaternary foreslopes in the Bahamas. Mar Geol 103:125–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Grammer GM, Ginsburg RN, Harris PM (1993) Timing of deposition, diagenesis, and failure of steep carbonate slopes in response to a high-amplitude/high-frequency fluctuation in sea level, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. In: Loucks RG, Sarg JF (eds) Carbonate sequence stratigraphy. AAPG Mem 57:107–131Google Scholar
  93. Graus RR, Macintyre IG, Herchenroder BE (1984) Computer simulation of the reef zonation at Discovery Bay, Jamaica: hurricane disruption and long term physical oceanographic control. Coral Reefs 3:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Greenstein GJ (1993) Is the fossil record of regular echinoids really so poor? A comparison of living and subfossil assemblages. Palaios 8:587–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Greenstein BJ, Meyer DL (1990) Mass mortality of Diadema antillarumadjacent to Andros Island Bahamas In: Myloroie J, Gerace D (eds) Fourth symposium on geology of the Bahamas. Bahamian field station, San Salvador, pp 159–168Google Scholar
  96. Haak AB, Schlager W (1989) Compositional variations in calciturbidites due to sea-level fluctuations, late Qaternary, Bahamas. Geol Rundsch 78:477–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Halley RB, Harris PM, Hine AC (1983) Bank margin. In: Scholle PA, Bebout DG, Moore CH (eds) Carbonate depositional environments. AAPG Mem 33:463–506Google Scholar
  98. Hallock P, Cottey TL, Forward LB, Halas J (1986) Population biology and sediment production of Archias Angulatus (foraminifera) in Largo Sound, Florida. J Foraminifer Res 16:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hardie LA (1977) Sedimentation on the modern carbonate tidal flats of northwest Andros Island, Bahamas. John Hopkins Univ Stud Geol 22:202Google Scholar
  100. Hardie LA, Shinn EA (1986) Carbonate depositional environments, modern and ancient; Part 3: tidal flats. Colorado School Mines Quart 81(1):1–74Google Scholar
  101. Harris PM (1979) Facies anatomy and diagenesis of a Bahamian ooid shoal. Sedimenta 7, University of Miami, FL, p 163Google Scholar
  102. Harris PM (1983) The Joulters ooid shoal, Great Bahama Bank. In: Peryt TM (ed) Coated grains. Springer, New York, pp 132–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Harris PM, Kowalik WS (1994) Satellite images of carbonate depositional settings – examples of reservoir- and exploration-scale geologic facies variation. AAPG, Methods in exploration 11:147Google Scholar
  104. Harris PM, Kerans C, Bebout DG (1993) Ancient outcrop and modern examples of platform carbonate cycles – implications for subsurface correlation and understanding reservoir heterogeneity. In: Loucks RG, Sarg JF (eds) Carbonate sequence stratigraphy. AAPG Mem 57:475–492Google Scholar
  105. Hassan M (1998) Modification of carbonate substrata by bioerosion and bioaccretion on coral reefs of the Red Sea. Shaker Verlag, Aachen, p 124Google Scholar
  106. Hearty PJ, Kindler P (1997) The stratigraphy and surficial geology of New Providence and surrounding Islands, Bahamas. J Coastal Res 13:798–812Google Scholar
  107. Hein FJ, Risk MJ (1975) Bioerosion of coral heads: Inner patch reefs, Florida Reef Tract. Bull Mar Sci 25:133–138Google Scholar
  108. Herrera A de (1601–1615) Historia general de los hechos de los castellanos en las Islas y Tierra Firme del mar Océano que llaman Indias OccidentalesGoogle Scholar
  109. Hess HH (1933) Submerged river valleys of the Bahamas. AGU transactions (14th anniversary meeting), pp 168–170Google Scholar
  110. Hess HH (1960) The origin of the Tongue of the Ocean and other great valleys of the Bahama Banks. 2nd Caribbean geological Conference, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, pp 160–161Google Scholar
  111. Hickey BM, MacCready P, Elliott E, Kackel NB (2000) Dense saline plumes in Exuma Sound, Bahamas. J Geophy Res 105:11471–11488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hidore JJ, Oliver JE (1993) Climatology: an atmospheric science. MacMillan, New York, p 423Google Scholar
  113. Hilgard EW (1871) On the geological history of the gulf of Mexico. Am J Sci 102:391–404Google Scholar
  114. Hilgard EW (1881) The later tertiary of the gulf of Mexico. Am J Sci 122:58–65Google Scholar
  115. Hillis H (1997) Coralgal reefs from a calcareous green alga perspective and a first carbonate budget. Proceedings of the 8th international coral reef symposium. Panama 1:761–766Google Scholar
  116. Hine AC (1977) Lily Bank, Bahamas; history of an active oolite sand shoal. J Sed Petr 47:1554–1581Google Scholar
  117. Hine AC, Neumann AC (1977) Shallow carbonate-bank-margin growth and structure, Little Bahama Bank, Bahamas. AAPG Bull 61:376–406Google Scholar
  118. Hine AC, Wilber RJ, Bane JM, Neumann AC, Lorenson KR (1981a) Offbank transport of carbonate sands along open, leeward bank margins: northern Bahamas. Mar Geol 42:327–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Hine AC, Wilber RJ, Neumann AC (1981b) Carbonate sand bodies along contrasting shallow bank margins facing open seaways in northern Bahamas. AAPG Bull 65:261–290Google Scholar
  120. Hoskin CM, Reed JK (1985) Carbonate sediment production by the rock-boring urchin, Echinometra lucunterand associated endolithic infauna at Black Rock, Little Bahama Bank. In: Reaka ML (ed) The ecology of coral reefs. Symposia series for undersea research 3(1):151–162Google Scholar
  121. Hoskin CM, Reed JK, Mook DH (1986) Production and off-bank transport of carbonate sediment, Black Rock, southwest Little Bahama Bank. Mar Geol 73:125–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Hutchings PA (1986) Biological destruction of coral reefs: a review. Coral Reefs 4:239–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Illing MA (1952) Distribution of certain foraminifera within the littoral zone on the Bahama Banks. Ann Mag Nat Hist Ser 12(5):275–285Google Scholar
  124. Illing LV (1954) Bahamian calcareous sands. AAPG Bull 38:1–95Google Scholar
  125. Isemer HJ, Hasse L (1985) The Bunker climate atlas of the North Atlantic Ocean. Springer Verlag, New York, p 342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. James NP (1983) Reef. In: Scholle PA, Bebout DG, Moore CH (ed) Carbonate depositional environments. AAPG Mem 33:345–440Google Scholar
  127. Jeans CV, Rawson PF (1980) Andros island, chalk and oceanic oozes – unpublished work of Maurice Black, 5th edn. Yorkshire Geol Soc Occasional Publications, p 100Google Scholar
  128. Johns E, Wilson WD, Molinary RL (1999) Direct observations of velocity and transport in the passages between the Intra-Americas Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, 1984–1996. J Geophys Res 104:25805–25820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Jokiel PL, Coles SL (1977) Effect of temperature on the mortality and growth of Hawaiian reef corals. Mar Biol 43:201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Kenter JAM, Anselmetti FS, Kramer P, Westphal H, Vandamme MGM (2002) Acoustic properties of “young” carbonate rocks, Ocean Drilling Program Leg 166 and Holes Clino and Unda, Western Great Bahama Bank. J Sed Res 72:129–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Kier JS, Pilkey OH (1971) The influence of sea-level changes on sediment carbonate mineralogy, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. Mar Geol 11:189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Kievman CM (1998) Match between late Pleistocene Great Bahama Bank and deep-sea oxygen isotope records of sea level. Geology 26:635–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Kindler P (1995) New data on the Holocene stratigraphy of Lee Stocking island (Bahamas) and its relation to sea-level history. In: Curran HA, White B (eds) Terrestrial and shallow marine geology of the Bahamas and Bermuda. GSA Spec Paper 300:105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Kindler P, Hearty PJ (1995) Pre-Sangamonian eolianites in the Bahamas? New evidence from Eleuthera Island. Mar Geol 127:73–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kindler P, Hearty PJ (1996) Carbonate petrography as an indicator of climate and sea-level changes: new data from Bahamian Quaternary units. Sedimentology 43:381–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Kindler P, Hearty PJ (1997) Geology of the Bahamas: architecture of Bahamian Islands. In: Vacher HL, Quinn TM (eds) Geology and hydrogeology of carbonate islands. Develoments in Sedimentology 54, Elsevier, pp 141–160Google Scholar
  137. Kindler P, Strasser A (2000) Palaeoclimatic significance of co-occurring wind- and water-induced sedimentary structures in the last-interglacial coastal deposits from Bermuda and the Bahamas. Sediment Geol 131:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Kramer PA (2003) Synthesis of coral reef health indicators for the western Atlanitic: results of the AGRRA program 1997–2000. Atoll Res Bull 496:1–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Kramer PA, Kramer PR, Ginsburg RN (2003) Assessment of the Andros island reef system, Bahamas (Part1: stony corals and algae). Atoll Res Bull 496:77–100Google Scholar
  140. Lang JC (1974) Biological zonation at the base of a reef. Am Scientist 62(3):272–281Google Scholar
  141. Lang JC, Wicklund RI, Dill RF (1988) Depth- and habitat-related bleaching of zooxanthellate reef organisms near Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Cays, Bahamas. Proceedings of the 6th international coral reef symposium, Townsville, Australia, pp 269–274Google Scholar
  142. Leaman KD, Vertes PS, Atkinson LP, Lee TN, Hamilton P, Waddell E (1995) Transport potential vorticity, and current/temperature structure across Northwest Providence and Santaren Channels and the Florida Current off Cay Sal Bank. J Geophys Res 100:8561–8569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Leg 101 Scientific Party (1988) Leg 101 – an overview. In: Austin JA Jr, Schlager W et al (ed) Proceedings of ODP, Sci Results, 101: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), pp 455–472Google Scholar
  144. Le Pichon X, Fox PJ (1971) Marginal offsets, fracture zones, and the early opening of the north Atlantic. J Geophys Res 76:6294–6308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Liddell WD, Avery WE, Ohlhorst SL (1997) Pattern of benthic community structure, 10–250 m, the Bahamas. Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium. Panama 1:437–442Google Scholar
  146. Linton D, Smith R, Alcolado P, Hanson C, Edwards P, Estrada R, Fisher T, Fernandez RG, Geraldes F, McCoy C, Vaughan D, Voegeli V, Warner G, Wiener J (2002) Status of coral reefs in the northern Caribbean and Atlantic Node of the GCRMN. In: Wilkinson C (ed) Status of coral reefs of the world. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, pp 277–302Google Scholar
  147. Littler MM, Littler DS (1984) A relative dominance model for biotic reefs. Advances in reef sciences. Proceedings of the joint meeting of the Atlantic Reef committee and international society of Reef studies, Miami, Florida, Abstract: 73–74Google Scholar
  148. Littler MM, Littler DS, Hanisak MD (1991) Deep-water rhodolith distribution, productivity and growth history at sites of formation and subsequent degradation. J Exp Biol Ecol 150:163–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Logan BW (1961) Cryptozoon and associate stromatolites from the Recent, Shark Bay, Western Australia. J Geo 69:517–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Lugo-Fernandez A (1989) Wave height changes and mass transport on Tague Reef, North Coast of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Unpub. Ph.D. disseration, The Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, p 205Google Scholar
  151. Lynts GW (1970) Conceptual model of the Bahamian platform for the last 135 million years. Nature 225:1226–1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Macintyre IG (1972) Submerged reefs of eastern Caribbean. AAPG Bull 56:720–738Google Scholar
  153. Macintyre IG, Reid PR (1992) Comment on the origin of aragonite needle mud; a picture is worth a thousand words. J Sed Petrol 62:1095–1097Google Scholar
  154. Macintyre IG, Burke RB, Stuckenrath R (1977) Thickest recorded Holocene reef section, Isla Pérez core hole, Alacran Reef, Mexico. Geology 5:749–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Macintyre IG, Prufert-Bebout L, Reid RP (2000) The role of endolithic cyanobacteria in the formation of lithified laminae in Bahamian stromatolites. Sedimentology 47:915–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Macintyre IG, Reid RP, Steneck RS (1996) Growth history of stromatolites in a Holocene fringing reef, Stocking Island, Bahamas. J Sed Res 66:231–242Google Scholar
  157. Major RP, Bebout DG, Harris PM (1996) Facies heterogeneity in a modern ooid sand shoal – an analog for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Geological Circular 96-1, Bureau of Economic Geology, Univ Texas, Austin, p 30Google Scholar
  158. Maldonado M, Young CM (1996) Bathymetric patterns of sponge distribution on the Bahamian slope. Deep-Sea Res 43:897–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Masaferro JL, Eberli GP (1999) Jurassic-Cenozoic structural evolution of the southern Great Bahama Bank. In: Mann P (ed) Caribbean basins: sedimentary basins of the world, Elsevier, pp 167–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Masaferro JL, Poblet J, Bulnes M, Eberli GP, Dixon TH, McClay K (1999) Palaeogene-Neogene/present day (?) growth folding in the Bahamian foreland of the Cuban fold and thrust belt. J Geol Soc London 156:617–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. McKee ED, Ward WC (1983) Eolian Environment. In: Scholle PA, Bebout DG, Moore CH (eds) Carbonate depositional environments. AAPG Mem 33:131–170Google Scholar
  162. McNeill DF, Ginsburg RN, Chang SR, Kirschvink JL (1988) Magnetostratigraphic dating of shallow-water carbonates from San Salvador, Bahamas. Geology 16:8–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. McNeill DF, Eberli GP, Lidz BH, Swart PK, Kenter JAM (2001) Chronostratigraphy of prograding carbonate platform margins: A record of dynamic slope sedimentation, Western Great Bahama Bank. In: Ginsburg RN (ed) Subsurface geology of a prograding carbonate platform margin, Great Bahama Bank. SEPM Spec Publ 70:101–134Google Scholar
  164. Meyerhoff AA, Hatten CW (1974) Bahamas salient of North America, Tectonic framework, stratigraphy and petroleum potential. AAPG Bull 58:1201–1239Google Scholar
  165. Milliman JD (1967) The geomorphology and history of Hogsty Reef, a Bahamian atoll. Bull Mar Sci 17:519–543Google Scholar
  166. Milliman JD, Freile D, Steinen RP, Wilber RJ (1993) Great Bahama Bank aragonitic muds: mostly inorganically precipitated, mostly exported. J Sed Petrol 63:589–595Google Scholar
  167. Monty CLV (1976) The origin and development of cryptalgal fabrics. In: Walter MR (ed) Stromatolites, developments in Sedimentology 20, Elsevier, pp 193–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Moore HB (1972) An estimate of carbonate production by macro-benthos in some tropical, soft-bottom communities. Mar Biol 17:145–148Google Scholar
  169. Morse JW, He S (1993) Influences of T, S, and PCO2on the pseudo-homogenous precipitation of CaCO3from seawater: implications for whiting formation. Mar Chem 41:291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Morse JW, Mackenzie FJ (1990) The geochemistry of sedimentary carbonates. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 707Google Scholar
  171. Morse JW, Millero FJ, Thurmond V, Brown E, Ostlund HG (1984) The carbonate chemistry of Grand Bahama Bank waters: after 18 years another look. J Geophys Res 89:3604–3614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Morse JW, Gledhill DK, Millero FJ (2003) CaCO3precipitation kinetics in waters from the Great Bahama Bank: implications for the relationship between bank hydrochemistry and whitings. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 67:2819–2826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Mullins HT (1975) Stratigraphy and structure of Northeast Providence Channel, Bahamas and origin of the northwestern Bahama platform. M.S. thesis, Duke University, Durham, NC, p 203Google Scholar
  174. Mullins HT, Lynts GW (1977) Origin of the northwestern Bahama platform: review and reinterpretation. GSA Bull 88:1447–1461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Mullins HT, Neumann AC (1979) Deep carbonate bank margin structure and sedimentation in the northern Bahamas. In: Doyle LJ, Pilkey OH (eds) Geology of continental slopes. SEPM Spec Publ 28:165–192Google Scholar
  176. Mullins HT, Neumann AC, Wilber RJ, Hine AC, Chinburg SJ (1980) Carbonate sediment drifts in northern Straits of Florida. AAPG Bull 64:1701–1717Google Scholar
  177. Mullins HT, Heath KC, Van Buren HM, Newton CR (1984) Anatomy of a modern open-ocean carbonate slope: northern Little Bahama Bank. Sedimentology 31:141–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. National Buoy Data Center (1973) Environmental conditions within specified geographic regions: offshore East and West coast of the United States and in the gulf of Mexico. U.S. Department of Commerce, p. 7/150–153Google Scholar
  179. Nelsen JE, Ginsburg RN (1986) Calcium-carbonate production by epibionts on Thalassiain Florida Bay. J Sed Petrol 56:622–628Google Scholar
  180. Nelson RJ (1853) On the geology of the Bahamas and on coral formations generally. Quaterly J Geol Soc London 9(35):200–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Neumann AC, Ball MM (1970) Submersible observations in the Straits of Florida: geology and bottom currents. GSA Bull 81:2861–2874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Neumann AC, Land LS (1975) Lime mud deposition and calcareous algae in the Bight of Abaco, Bahamas: a budget. J Sed Petrol 45:763–786Google Scholar
  183. Neumann AC, Gebelein CD, Scoffin TP (1970) The composition, structure and erodability of subtidal mats, Abaco, Bahamas. J Sed Petrol 40:274–297Google Scholar
  184. Newell ND (1955) Bahamian platforms. In: Poldervaart A (ed) Crust of the Earth. Boulder, CO, pp 303–316Google Scholar
  185. Newell ND, Imbrie J (1955) Biogeological reconnaissance in the Bimini area, Great Bahama Bank. Trans N Y Acad Sci 18:3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Newell ND, Rigby JK (1957) Geological studies in the Great Bahama Bank. In: Le Blanc RJ, Breeding JG (eds) Regional aspects of carbonate sedimentation. SEPM Spec Publ 5:15–79Google Scholar
  187. Newell ND, Imbrie J, Purdy EG, Thurber DL (1959) Organism communities and bottom facies, Great Bahama Bank. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 117:117–228Google Scholar
  188. Newell ND, Purdy EG, Imbrie J (1960) Bahamian oolitic sand. J Geo 68:481–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Palmer MS (1979) Holocene facies geometry of the Leeward Bank Margin, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. M.S. thesis, University of Miami, p 200Google Scholar
  190. Paull CK, Neumann AC, Bebout B, Zabielski V, Showers W (1992) Growth rate and stable isotopic character of modern stromatolites from San Salvador, Bahamas. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 95:335–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Paulus FJ (1972) The Geology of Site 98 and the Bahama Platform. In: Hollister CD, Ewing JI et al (eds) Proceedings of ODP, Init Repts, 11: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), pp 877–897Google Scholar
  192. Payri CE (1997) Hydrolithon reinboldiidistribution, growth and carbon production of a French Polynesian reef. 8th international coral reef symposium. Panama 1:755–760Google Scholar
  193. Perkins RD, Enos P (1968) Hurricane Betsy in the Florida-Bahamas area; geologic effects and comparison with Hurricane Donna. J Geo 76:710–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Perkins RD, Dwyer GS, Rosoff DB, Fuller J, Baker PA, Lloyd RM (1994) Salina sedimentation and diagenesis; West Caicos Island, British West Indies. In: Purser B, Tucker M, Zenger D (eds) Dolomites; a volume in honour of Dolomieu. IAS Spec Publ 21:37–54Google Scholar
  195. Pilskaln CH, Neumann CA, Bane JH (1989) Periplatform carbonate flux in the northern Bahamas. Deep-Sea Res 36:1391–1406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Pomar L (1993) High-resolution sequence stratigraphy in prograding Miocene carbonates; application to seismic interpretation. In: Loucks RG, Sarg JF (eds) Carbonate sequence stratigraphy; recent developments and applications. AAPG Mem 57:389–407Google Scholar
  197. Purdy EG (1963a) Recent calcium carbonate facies of the Great Bahama Bank. 1. Petrography and reaction groups. J Geo 71:334–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Purdy EG (1963b) Recent calcium carbonate facies of the Great Bahama Bank. 2. Sedimentary facies. J Geo 71:472–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Queen JM (1978) Carbonate sedimentology and ecology of some pelleted muds west of Andros Island, Great Bahama Bank. Ph.D. thesis, State University of New York, Stony Brook, p 401Google Scholar
  200. Rankey EC (2002) Spatial patterns of sediment accumulation on a Holocene carbonate tidal flat northwest Andros Island, Bahamas. J Sed Res 72:591–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Rankey EC, Morgan J (2002) Quantified rates of geomorphic change on a modern carbonate tidal flat, Bahamas. Geology 30:583–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Rankey EC, Enos P, Steffen K, Druke D (2004) Lack of impact of hurricane Michelle on tidal flats, Andros island, Bahamas: integrated remote sensing and field observations. J Sed Res 74:654–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Rankey EC, Riegl B, Steffen, K (2006) Form, function, and in a tidally dominated ooid shoal, Bahamas. Sedimentology 53:1191–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Reaka-Kulda ML, O’Connell DO, Regan JD, Wicklund RI (1994) Effect of temperature and UV-B on different components of coral reef communities from the Bahamas. Proceedings colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs: health, hazards, and history. RSMAS Univ Miami, 126–131.Google Scholar
  205. Reeder SL, Rankey EC (2009) Controls on morphology and sedimentology of carbonate tidal deltas, Abacos, Bahamas. Marine Geology 267:141–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Reid RP, Macintyre IG, Browne KM, Steneck RS, Miller T (1995) Modern marine stromatolites in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas: uncommonly common. Facies 33:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Reid RP, Visscher PT, Decho AW, Stolz JF, Bebout BM, Dupraz C, Macintyre IG, Paerl HW, Pinckney JL, Prufert-Bebout L, Steppe TF, DesMarais DJ (2000) The role of microbes in accretion, lamination and early lithification of modern marine stromatolites. Nature 406:989–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Reijmer JJG, Schlager W, Bosscher H, Beets CJ, McNeill DF (1992) Pliocene/Pleistocene platform facies transition recorded in calciturbidites (Exuma Sound, Bahamas). Sediment Geol 78:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Reijmer JJG, Schlager W, Droxler AW (1988) Site 632: Pliocene-Pleistocene sedimentation cycles in a Bahamian basin. In: Austin JA Jr, Schlager W et al (eds) Proceedings of ODP, Sci Results 101: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program): 213–220Google Scholar
  210. Rendle, RH (2000) Quaternary slope development and sedimentology of the Western, Leeward Margin of Great Bahama Bank (ODP Leg 166). Ph.D. thesis, University of Kiel, Germany, p 199Google Scholar
  211. Richardson WS, Schmitz WJ Jr, Niiler PP (1969) The velocity structure of the Florida Current from the Straits of Florida to Cape Fear. Deep-Sea Res 16:225–231Google Scholar
  212. Riegl B, Piller WE (2003) Possible refugia for reefs in times of environmental stress. Int J Earth Sci 92:520–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Riegl B, Manfrino C, Hermoyian C, Brandt M, Hoshino K (2003) Assessment of the coral reefs of the Turks and Caicos Islands (Part 1: stony corals and algae). Atoll Res Bull 496:461–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Robbins LL, Blackwelder PL (1992) Biochemical and ultrastructural evidence for the origin of whitings: a biologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation mechanism. Geology 20:464–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Robbins LL, Tao Y, Evans CA (1997) Temporal and spatial distribution of whitings on Great Bahama Bank and a new lime mud budget. Geology 25:947–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Roberts HH (1979) Reef-crest wave and current interactions and sediment transport. AAPG Bull 63:517Google Scholar
  217. Roberts HH, Rouse LJ Jr, Walker ND, Hudson JH (1982) Cold-water stress in Florida Bay and northern Bahamas; a product of winter cold-air outbreaks. J Sed Petrol 52:145–155Google Scholar
  218. Rose PR, Lidz B (1977) Diagnostic foraminiferal assemblages of shallow-water modern environments: South Florida and the Bahamas. Sedimenta 6, University of Miami, FL, p 55Google Scholar
  219. Rusnak GA, Nesteroff WD (1964) Modern turbidites: Terrigenous abyssal plain versus bioclastic basin. In: Miller RL (ed) Papers in marine geology. Macmillan, New York, pp 488–507Google Scholar
  220. Schlager W (1981) The paradox of drowned reefs and carbonate platform. GSA Bull 92:197–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Schlager W (2005) Carbonate sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy: SEPM concepts in Sedimentology and Paleontology 8, p 200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Schlager W, James NP (1978) Low-magnesian calcite limestone forming at the deep-sea floor, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. Sedimentology 25:675–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Schlager W, Chermak A (1979) Sediment facies of platform-basin transition, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. In: Doyle LJ, Pilkey OH (eds) Geology of continental slopes. SEPM Spec Pub 27:193–208Google Scholar
  224. Schlager W, Ginsburg RN (1981) Bahama carbonate platforms – the deep and the past. Mar Geol 44:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Schlager W, Austin JA et al (1985) Ocean drilling program; rise and fall of carbonate platforms in the Bahamas. Nature 315:632–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Schlager W, Bourgeois F, Mackenzie G, Smit, J (1988) Boreholes at Great Isaac and Site 626 and the history of the Florida Straits. In: Austin JA Jr, Schlager W et al (eds) Proceedings of ODP, Sci Results, 101: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 425–437Google Scholar
  227. Schlager W, Reijmer JJG, Droxler AW (1994) Highstand shedding of carbonate platforms. J Sed Petrol 64:270–281Google Scholar
  228. Schuchert C (1935) Historical geology of the Antillean-Caribbean region or the lands bordering the gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Wiley, New York, p 811Google Scholar
  229. Sealey NE (1994) Bahamian Landscapes: an introduction to the physical geography of the Bahamas. Media Publishing, Nassau, Bahamas, p 128Google Scholar
  230. Sheridan RE (1971) Geotectonic evolution and subsidence of Bahama platform; discussion. GSA Bull 82:807–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Sheridan RE (1974) Atlantic continental margin of North America. In: Burk CA, Drake CL (eds) The geology of continental margins. Springer, New York, pp 391–407Google Scholar
  232. Sheridan RE (1976) Sedimentary basins of the Atlantic margin of North America. Tectonophysics 36:113–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Sheridan RE, Crosby JT, Bryan GM, Stoffa PL (1981) Stratigraphy and structure of Southern Blake Plateau, Northern Florida Straits and Northern Bahama platform from multichannel seismic reflection data. AAPG Bull 65:2571–2593Google Scholar
  234. Shinn EA (1983) Tidal flat. In: Scholle PA, Bebout DG, Moore CH (eds) Carbonate depositional environments. AAPG Mem 33:345–440Google Scholar
  235. Shinn EA, Ginsburg RN, Lloyd RM (1965) Recent supratidal dolomite from Andros Island, Bahamas. In: Pray LC, Murray RC (eds) SEPM Spec Publ 13:112–123Google Scholar
  236. Shinn EA, Lloyd RM, Ginsburg RN (1969) Anatomy of a modern carbonate tidal flat. J Sed Petrol 53:1202–1228Google Scholar
  237. Shinn EA, Steinen RP, Dill RF, Major RP (1993) Lime-mud layers in high energy tidal channels: a record of hurricane deposition. Geology 21:603–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Shinn EA, Steinen RP, Lidz BH, Swart PK (1989) Whitings, a sedimentologic dilemma. J Sed Petrol 59:147–161Google Scholar
  239. Shore and Beach (1972) Surface water temperature and density – Atlantic Coast, North and South America. Shore Beach 40:37–43Google Scholar
  240. Smith CL (1940) The Great Bahama Bank. J Mar Res 3:147–189Google Scholar
  241. Smith FGW (1948) Atlantic reef corals; a handbook of the common reef and shallow-water ­corals of Bermuda, the Bahamas, Florida, the West Indies, and Brazil. University of Miami Press, p 112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Smith NP (2001) Weather and hydrographic conditions associated with coral bleaching: Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas. Coral Reefs 20:415–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Smith JD, Hopkins TS (1972) Sediment transport on the continental shelf off of Washington and Oregon in light of recent current measurements. In: Swift DJP, Duane DB (eds) Shelf sediment transport; process and pattern. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, PA, pp 143–180Google Scholar
  244. Stafford-Smith MG (1992) Mortality of the hard coral Leptoria phrygiaunder persistent sediment influx. Proceedings of the 7th International Coral Reef Symposium. Guam 1:289–299Google Scholar
  245. Steneck RS, Testa V (1997) Are calcareous algae important to reefs today or in the past? Symposium summary. Proceedings of the 8th international coral reef symposium. Panama 1:685–698Google Scholar
  246. Stevens J (1726) The general history of the vast continent and islands of AmericaGoogle Scholar
  247. Stockman KW, Ginsburg RN, Shinn EA (1967) The production of lime mud by algae in south Florida. J Sediment Geol 37:633–648Google Scholar
  248. Storr JF (1964) Ecology and oceanography of the coral-reef tract, Abaco Island, Bahamas. GSA Spec Paper 79:98Google Scholar
  249. Strasser A, Davaud E (1986) Formation of Holocene limestone sequences by progradation, cementation, and erosion; two examples from the Bahamas. J Sed Res 56:422–428Google Scholar
  250. Suess E (1885–1909) Das Antlitz der Erde. 3rdedn. F Tempsky, Prague, 1989 p.Google Scholar
  251. Swart PK, Eberli GP, Malone MJ, Sarg JK (eds) (2000) Proceedings of the ODP, Sci. Results, 166: College Station, TX, p 195Google Scholar
  252. Taft WH, Arrington F, Haimovitz A, MacDonald C, Woolheater C (1968) Lithification of modern marine carbonate sediments at Yellow Banks, Bahamas. Bull Mar Sci 18:762–828Google Scholar
  253. Talwani M, Worzel JL, Ewing M (1960) Gravity anomalies and structure of the Bahamas. Transactions of the 2nd Caribbean geological conference, University of Puerto Rico, pp 156–160Google Scholar
  254. Thompson JB (2000) Microbial whitings. In: Riding RE, Awramik SM (eds) Microbial sediments. Springer, Berlin, pp 250–260Google Scholar
  255. Traverse A, Ginsburg RN (1966) Palynology of the surface sediments of Great Bahama Bank, as related to water movement and sedimentation. Mar Geol 4:417–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Tucker ME, Wright VP (1990) Carbonate sedimentology. Blackwell Science, Oxford, p 482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Uchupi E, Milliman JD, Luyendyk BP, Bowin CO, Emery KO (1971) Structure and origin of southeastern Bahamas. AAPG Bull 55:687–704Google Scholar
  258. United States Naval Oceanographic Office (1973) Surface currents. Naval Oceanographic Office Special Publication 1400-NA 1, Naval Oceanographic Office NSTL Station MSGoogle Scholar
  259. Vaughan TW (1914) Preliminary remarks on the Geology of the Bahamas, with special reference to the origin of the Bahaman and Floridian Oölites. Carnegie Institution publication no. 182:47–54Google Scholar
  260. Vogel K, Gektidis M, Golubic S, Kiene WE, Radtke G (2000) Experimental studies on microbial bioerosion at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas and One Tree Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: implication for paleoecological reconstructions. Lethaia 33:190–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Wang J, Mooers CNK (1997) Three-dimensional perspectives of the Florida Current: transport, potential vorticity, and related dynamical properties. Dyn Atmos Oceans 27:135–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Wanless HR, Dravis JJ (1989) Carbonate environments and sequences of Caicos platform. Field Trip Guidebook T374, 28th International Geological Congress, p 75Google Scholar
  263. Westphal H (1998) Carbonate platform slopes – a record of changing conditions. The Pliocene of the Bahamas. Lecturer Notes in Earth Sciences 75, Springer, Heidelberg, p 197Google Scholar
  264. Westphal H, Reijmer JJG, Head MJ (1999) Input and diagenesis on a carbonate slope (Bahamas): response to morphology evolution and sea-level fluctuations. In: Harris PM, Saller AH, Simo JA, Handford CR (eds) Advances in carbonate sequence stratigraphy – application to reservoirs, outcrops and models. SEPM Spec Pub 63:247–274Google Scholar
  265. Westphal H, Head MJ, Munnecke A (2000) Differential diagenesis of rhythmic limestone alternations supported by palynological evidence. J Sedim Research 70:715–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. White B, Curran HA (1988) Mesoscale physical sedimentary structures and trace fossils in Holocene eolianites from San Salvador, Bahamas. Sediment Geol 55:163–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Wilber RJ, Milliman JD, Halley RB (1990) Accumulation of Holocene banktop sediment on the western margin of Great Bahama Bank: rapid progradation of a carbonate megabank. Geology 18:970–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Wilber RJ, Whitehead JA, Halley RB, Milliman JD (1993) Carbonate-periplatform sedimentation by density flows; a mechanism for rapid off-bank and vertical transport of shallow-water fines: comment. Geology 21:667–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Wilkinson CR, Buddemeier RW (1994) Global climate change and coral reefs: implication for people and reefs. In: UNEP-IOC-ASPEI-IUCN global task team on the implication of climate on coral reefs, p 124Google Scholar
  270. Wilson JL (1974) Characteristics of carbonate platform margins. AAPG Bull 58:810–824Google Scholar
  271. Wilson PA, Roberts HH (1992) Carbonate-periplatform sedimentation by density flows: a mechanism for rapid off-bank and vertical transport of shallow water fines. Geology 20:713–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Wilson PA, Roberts HH (1995) Density cascading: off-shelf transport, evidence and implications, Bahama Banks. J Sed Res 65:45–56Google Scholar
  273. Wilson WL, Mylroie JE, Carew J (1995) Caves as a geologic hazard; a quantitative analysis from San Salvador Island, Bahamas. In: Beck B (ed) Karst Geohazards; engineering and environmental problems in karst terranes. Proceedings – multidisciplinary conference on sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental impacts of Karst 5:487–495Google Scholar
  274. Woelkerling WJ (1976) South Florida benthic marine algae; keys and comments. Sedimenta 5, University of Miami, FL, p 145Google Scholar
  275. Wood R (1999) Reef evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 414Google Scholar
  276. Young IR, Holland G (1996) Atlas of the oceans – Wind and wave climate. Pergamon Press, Oxford, p 414Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kelly L. Bergman
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hildegard Westphal
    • 3
  • Xavier Janson
    • 4
    • 2
  • Anthony Poiriez
    • 2
  • Gregor P. Eberli
    • 2
  1. 1.ETC Chevron CorporationSan RamonUSA
  2. 2.Rosenstiel School for Marine and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Department of GeosciencesUniversität BremenBremenGermany
  4. 4.Bureau of Economic GeologyAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations