Advertisement

Micronutrients

  • R. D. Teasdale
Chapter
Part of the Forestry Sciences book series (FOSC, volume 24-26)

Abstract

Those elements which are required by plants in small amounts for normal growth are known variously as micronutrients, micro-elements or trace elements. Some of these, such as Fe and Ni, may be present in great abundance, so that the latter two terms are less appropriate and now used less frequently by workers in the field. The number of known micronutrients has increased over the years, paralleling improvements in procedures to remove extremely small amounts of contaminants. An example of a recent addition is provided by Ni(27, 29), further new additions are likely with increasing research effort. Interest in the micronutrients is not confined to their deficiencies; toxic excesses of micro-elements such as Cu and Zn are of environmental significance(33). The growing tendency to allocate reject lands to forestry(109) justifies substantial research effort on the physiological, biochemical and genetic effects of these elements on forest tree species. It is one aim of this chapter to provide some guidance on the use of tissue culture systems for studies of defined micro-nutrient stress.

Keywords

Cell Suspension Culture Nitrate Reductase Activity Tissue Culture Medium Copper Deficiency Pinus Taeda 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    ALT D, W SCHWARZ 1973 Bor-Toxizitat, Bor-Aufnahme und Bor-Verteilung bei jungen Gurkenpflanzen unter dem Einflusz der N-Form. Plant Soil 39: 277–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    BELTRAMINI M, K LERCH 1983 Spectroscopic studies on Neurospora copper metallothionein. Biochemistry 22: 2043–2048PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    BIDWELL RGS, DJ DURZAN 1975 Recent aspects of nitrogen metabolism. In Historical and Recent Aspects of Plant Physiology. Cornell Univ Press, Ithaca, pp 152–227Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    BOONE CM, JM BRISTOW. G WOIANLOON 1983 The relative efficiency of ionic iron (III) and iron (II) utilization by the rice plant. J Plant Nutr 6: 201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    BORNMAN CH 1983 Possibilities and contraints in the regeneration of trees from cotyledonary needles of Picea abies in vitro. Physiol Plant. 57: 5–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    BOWEN JE 1969 Absorption of copper, zinc, and manganese by sugar cane leaf tissue. Plant Physiol 4: 255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    BOWEN JE 1981 Microelement nutrition of sugar-cane II–Interactions in micro-element accumulation. Trop Agric 50: 129–137Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    BOWMAN RA, SR OLSEN 1982 Effect of calcium sulphate on iron and zinc uptake in sorghum. Agron J 74: 923–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    BROWNELL PF, CJ CROSSLAND 1974 The requirement of sodium as a micronutrient by species having the C4 decarboxylic acid photosynthetic pathway. Plant Physiol 49: 794–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    CHALUPA V, DJ DURZAN, C VITHAYASAI 1974 Growth and metabbolism of cells and tissues of jack pine (Pinus banksiana). 2. The quantitative analysis of the growth of callus from hypocotyls and radicles. CAN J BOT 54: 446–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    CHANEY RL, JC BROWN, LO TIFFIN 1972 Obligatory reduction of ferric chelates in iron uptake by soybeans. Plant Physiol 50: 208–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    CHAUDHRY FM, JF LONERAGAN 1970 Effects of nitrogen, copper and zinc fertilizers on the copper and zinc nutrition of wheat plants. Aust J Agric Res 21: 865–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    CHENG BT 1982 Some significant functions of silicon to higher plants. J Plant Nutr 5: 1345–1353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    CLARKSON DT, JB HANSON 1980 The mineral nutrition of higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 31: 239–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    COMERFORD NB, AL LEAF 1982 An evaluation of techniques for sampling forest tree nutrient content. Part I Sampling the crown for total nutrient content. For Sci 28: 471–480Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    COOMBES AJ, DA PHIPPS, NW LEPP 1977 Uptake patterns of free and complexed copper ions in excised roots of barley. (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Zephyr) Z Pflanzenphysiol 82: 435–439Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    CRITCHLEY C 1985 The role of chloride in Photosystem II. Biochem Biophys Acta 811: 33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    CULLIS CA 1981 Environmental induction of heritable changes in flax. Heredity 38: 129–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    DALTON CC, K IQBAL, DA TURNER 1983 Iron Phosphate precipitation in Murashige and Skoog media. Physiol Plant 57: 472–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    DELFEL DE, LJ SMITH 1980 The importance of culture conditions and medium component interactions on the growth of Cephalotaxus Harringtonia tissue cultures. Plant Med 40: 237–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    DIXON NE, C GAZZIOLA, RL BLAKELY, B ZERNER 1975. Jack bean urease (E.C.3.5.1.5.) A metalloenzyme. A simple biologi- cal role for nickel. J Am Chem Soc 97: 4131–4133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    DOWNIE JA, PB GARLAND 1973 An antimycin A and cyanide resistant variant of Candida utilis arising during copper limited growth. Biochem J 134: 1051–1061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    DRAGUN J, DE BAKER, ML RISIUS 1976 Growth and element accumulation by two single-cross corn hybrids as affected by copper in solution. Agron J 68: 466–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    DURE P, JR ANDREESEN 1982 Selenium-dependent growth and glycine fermentation by Candida utilus J Gen Microbiology 128: 1457–1466Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    DURZAN DJ, V CHALUPA 1974 Growth and metabolism of cells and tissue of jack pine(Pinus banksiana). 3. Growth of cells in liquid suspension cultures in light and darkness. Can J Bot 54: 456–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    ERIKSON T 1965 Studies on the growth requirements and growth measurements of cell cultures of Haplopappus gracilis. Physiol Plant 18: 976–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    ESKEW DL, RM WELCH, EE CARY 1983 Nickel: an essential micronutrient for legumes and possibly all higher plants. Science 222: 621–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    ESKEW DL, RM WELCH, EE CARY 1984 A simple plant nutrient solution purification method for effective removal of trace metals using controlled pore glass-8-hydroxyquinoline chelation column chromatography. Plant Physiol 76: 103–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    ESKEW DL, RM WELCH, WA NORVELL 1984 Nickel in higher plants. Further evidence for an essential role. Plant Physiol 76: 691–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    FEIRER RP, G MIGNON, JD LITVAY 1984 Arginine decarboxylase and polyamines required for embryogenesis in the wild carrot. Science 223: 1433–1435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    FOGEL S, JW WELCH 1982 Tandem gene amplification mediates copper resistance in yeast. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 79: 5342–5346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    FOWDEN L 1959 Radioactive iodine incorporation in organic compounds of various angiosperms. Physiol Plant 12: 657–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    FOY CD, RL CHANEY, MC WHITE 1978 The physiology of metal toxicity in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 29: 511–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    GAMBORG OL, T MURASHIGE, TA THORPE, IK VASIL 1976. Plant tissue culture media. In Vitro 12: 473–478Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    GARCIA JE, M GOMEZ, J YANEZ, J LOPEZ-GORGE, LA DEL RIO 1981. Isozyme pattern of the metalloenzyme system superoxide dismutase during growth of peas (Pisum sativum L.) under different iron nutrient conditions. Z Pflanzenphysiol 105: 21–29Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    GRAHAM RD 1979. Transport of copper and manganese to the xylem exudate of sunflower. Plant cell Environ 2: 139–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    GRAHAM RD 1981 Absorption of copper by plant roots. In JF Loneragan, AD Robson, RD Graham, eds, Copper in Soils and Plants. Academic Press, Sydney, pp 141–163Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    GRAVES CJ, JF SUTCLIFFE 1974 An effect of copper deficiency on the initiation and development of flower buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium grown in solution culture. Ann Bot 38: 729–738Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    GRESHOFF PM, CH DOY 1972. Development and differentiation of haploid Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Planta 107: 161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    GROSS GG, 1980 The biochemistry of lignification. Adv Bot Res 8: 26–65Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    GUPTA UC 1979 Boron nutrition of crops. Adv Agron 31: 273–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    HAHLBROCK K, H GRISEBACH 1979 Enzymic controls in the biosynthesis of lignin and flavonoids. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 30: 105–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    HALLIWELL B 1978 Biochemical mechanisms account for the toxic action of oxygen on living organisms: The key role of superoxide dismutase. Cell Biol Int Rep 2: 113–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    HARRISON SJ, NW LEPP, DA PHIPPS 1979 Uptake of copper by excised roots II. Z Pflanzenphysiol 90: 443–450Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    HARRISON SJ, NW LEPP, DA PHIPPS 1983 Copper uptake by excised roots. III Z Pflanzenphysiol 109: 285–289Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    HATCH MD, CR SLACK 1970 Photosynthetic CO2–fixation pathways. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 32: 141–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    HEIMER YM, P FILNER 1971 Regulation of the nitrate assimilation pathways in cultured tobacco cells. III. The nitrate uptake system. Biochim Biophys Acta 230: 362–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    HEWITT EJ 1983 A perspective of mineral nutrition: essential and functional metals in plants. In DA Robb, WS Pier-point, eds, Metals and Micronutrients: Uptake and Utilization by Plants. Academic Press, London pp 277–323Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    HEWITT EJ, TA SMITH 1974 Plant Mineral Nutrition. English Univ Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    HILL J, MJ LAMBERT 1981 Physiology and management of micronutrients in forest trees in Australia. In Proc Australian Forest Nutrition Workshop. CSIRO, Melbourne, pp 93–103Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    HILL J, AD ROBSON, JF LONERAGAN 1979 The effects of copper and nitrogen supply on the distribution of copper in dissected wheat grains. Aust J Agric Res 30: 233–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    HOCKING PJ 1982 Salt and mineral nutrient levels in fruits of two strand species, Cakile maritima and Arctotheca populifolia, with special reference to the effect of salt on the germination of Cakile. Ann Bot 50: 335–343Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    HOEKSTRA WG 1974 Biochemical role of selenium. In WG Hoekstra JW Suttie HE Ganther W Mertz, eds, Trace Element Metabolism in Animals–2. Univ Park Press, Baltimore, pp 61–77Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    HOFFMAN FM, CJ HILLSON 1979 Effects of silicon on the life cycle of Equisetum hyemale L. Bot Gaz 140: 127–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    HOLMBERG A 1949 On the practical identifiability of microbial growth models incorporating Michaelis-Menten type nonlinearities. Math Biosci 62: 23–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    HUTCHINSON TC 1981 Nickel. In NW Lepp, ed, Effects of Trace Metals on Plant Function. Applied Sci Publ, London, pp 171–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    KESSLER DL, KV RAJAGOPALAN 1972 Purification and properties of sulfite oxidase from chicken liver: Presence of Molybdenum in sulfite oxidase from diverse sources. J Biol Chem 247: 6566–6573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    KNIGHT PJ 1978 The nutrient content of Pinus radiata seedlings: a survey of planting stock from 17 New Zealand forest nurseries. NZ J For Sci 8: 54–69Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    KNIGHT PJ 1978 Foliar concentrations of ten mineral nutrients in nine Pinus radiata clones during a 15 month period. NZ J For Sci 8: 351–368Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    LAMBERT MJ, J TURNER 1977 Dieback in high site quality Pinus radiata stands–the role of sulphur and boron deficiences. NZ J For Sci 7: 333–348Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    LARKIN PJ, WR Scowcroft 1981 Somaclonal variation–a novel source of variability from cell cultures for plant improvement. Theor Appl Genet 60: 197–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    LEH JJ, JM WYBENGA, M ROSANOW 1958 Iodine as a micro-nutrient for tomatoes. Plant Physiol 13: 391–398Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    LEWIN J, BEF REIMANN 1969 Silicon and plant growth. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 20: 289–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    LEWIS DH 1980 Boron, lignification and the origin of vascular plants–a unified hypothesis. New Phytol 84: 209–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    LITVAY JD, MA JOHNSON, DC VERMA, DW EINSPAHR, K WEYRAUCH 1981 Conifer suspension culture medium development using analytical data from developing seeds. Inst Paper Chem Tech Pap Ser 115: 1–17Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    LONERAGAN JF 1975 The availability and absorption of trace elements in soil-plant systems and their relation to movement and concentrations of trace elements in plants. In DJD Nicholas, AR Egan, eds, Trace Elements in Soil-Plant-Animal Systems. Academic Press, New York, pp 109–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    LONERAGAN JF 1981 Distribution and movement of copper in plants. In JF Loneragan, AD Robson, RD Graham, eds, Copper in Soils and Plants. Academic Press, Sydney, pp 165–188Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    MANN MS, PN TAKKER 1983 Antagonism of micronutrient cations on sweet orange leaves. Sci Hortic 20: 259–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    MARSCHNER H, JV POSSINGHAM 1976 Effect of K+ and Na+ on growth of leaf discs of sugar beet and spinach. Z Pflanzenphysiol 75: 6–16Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    MATSUMOTO H, F HIRASAWA, S MORIMURA, E TAKAHISHI 1976 Localization of aluminium in tea leaves. Plant Cell Physiol 17: 890–895Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    McBRIDE MB 1981 Forms and distribution of copper in solid and solution phases of soils. In JF Loneragan, AD Robson, RD Graham, eds, Copper in Soils and Plants. Academic Press, Sydney, pp 25–45Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    MERTZ W 1974 The newer essential trace elements, chromium, tin, vanadium, nickel and silicon. Proc Nutr Soc 33: 307–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    MERTZ W, EE ROGINSKI 1971 Chromium metabolism: the glucose tolerance factor. In W Mertz, WE Cornatzer, eds, New Trace Elements in Nutrition. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 123–153Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    MONOD J 1949 The growth of bacterial cultures. Annu Rev Microbiol 3: 371–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    MOORE HM, AM HIRSCH 1983 Effects of boron deficiency on mitosis and incorporation of tritiated thymidine into nucleii of sunflo,“er root tips. Am J Bot 70: 165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    MORGAN PH 1981 Utilization of growth constants as response variables in experimental nutrition. Nutr Revs 39: 321–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    MURASHIGE T, F SKOOG 1962 A revised medium for rapid growth and bio-assays with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol Plant 15: 473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    NGUYEN J, J FEIERABEND 1978 Some properties and sub-cellular localization of xanthine dehydrogenase in pea leaves. Plant Sci Lett 13: 125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    NICHOLAS DJD 1975 The Functions of trace elements in plants. In DJD Nicholas, AR Egan, eds, Trace Elements in Soil-PlantAnimal Systems. Academic Press, New York, pp 181–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    NICHOLAS DJD, A NASON 1954 Molybdenum and nitrate reductase II. Molybdenum as a constituent of nitrate reductase. J Biol Chem 207: 353–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    OERTLI JJ, E GRGUREVIC 1975 Effect of pH on the absorption of boron by excised embryos. Agron J 67: 278–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    PAIS I 1983 The biological importance of titanium. J Plant Nutr 6: 3–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    PHIPPS DA 1981 Chemistry and biochemistry of trace metals in biological systems. In Effects of Trace Metals on Plant Function, Vol 1 NW Lepp, ed, Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Plants. Appl Sci Publ, London, pp 1–54Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    POLACCO JC 1977 Nitrogen metabolism in soybean tissue culture II. Urea utilization and urea synthesis require Nie. Plant Physiol 59: 827–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    POLACCO JC 1977 Is nickel a universal component of plant ureases? Plant Sci Lett 10: 249–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    POLLARD AS, AJ PARR, BC LOUGHMAN 1977 Boron in relation to membrane function in higher plants. J Exp Bot 28: 831–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    RAGHAVENDRA AS, JM RAO, VSR DAS 1976 Replaceability of potassium by sodium for stomatal opening in epidermal strips of Commelina benghalensis. Z Pflanzenphysiol 80: 36–42Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    RASCHKE K, H SCHNABLE 1978 Availability of chloride affects the balance between potassium chloride and potassium malate in guard cells of Vicia faba L. Plant Physiol 62: 84–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    RAUPACH M 1975 Trace element disorders in Pinus and their correction. In DJD Nicholas, AR Egan, eds, Trace Elements in Soil-Plant-Animal Systems. Academic Press, New York, pp 353–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    RAUSER WE, NR CURVETTO 1980 Metallothionein occurs in roots of Agrostis tolerant to excess copper. Nature 287: 563–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    REILLEY CN, RW SCHMID 1958 Chelometric titrations with potentiometric end point detection. Anal Chem 30: 947–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    ROMHELD V, H MARSCHNER 1983 Mechanism of iron uptake by peanut plants. I. Fe III reduction chelate splitting, and release of phenolics. Plant Physiol 71: 949–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    RUFNER R, AV BARKER 1984 Ultrastructure of zinc-induced iron deficiency in mesophyll chloroplasts of spinach and tomato. J Amer Soc Hortic Sci 109: 164–168Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    SAURA-CALIXTO F, J CANELLAS 1982 Mineral Composition of Almond Varieties (Prunus amygdalus). Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 174: 129–131Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    SCHOLZ G 1983 A report on iron uptake by higher plants. Biol Zentralbl 102: 65–75Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    SCHENK RV, AC HILDEBRANDT 1972 Medium and techniques for induction and growth of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant cell cultures. Can J Bot 50: 199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    SEVILLA F, J LOPEZ-GORGE, M GOMEZ LA DEL DIO 1980 Manganese superoxide dismutase from a higher plant. Purification of a new Mn-containing enzyme. Planta 150: 153–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    SHOMER-ILAN A, Y WAISEL 1973 The effect of sodium choride on the balance between C3 and C4 carbon fixation pathways. Physiol Plant 29: 190–193Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    SMITH NE 1943 Micronutrients essential for growth of Pinus radiata. Aust For 7: 22–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    SMITH DA, WM DuGGRR 1980 Effects of boron deficiency on 86rubidium uptake and photosynthesis in the diatom Cylindrotheca fustiformis. Plant Physiol 66: 692–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    SPECTOR M, GD WINGET 1980 Purification of a manganese-containing protein involved in photosynthetic oxygen evolution and its use in reconstituting an active membrane. Proc Nat Aced Sci USA 77: 957–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    STREET HE 1966 The nutrition and metabolism of plant tissue and organ cultures. In EN Wilmer, ed, Cells and Tissues in Culture. Academic Press, New York, pp 533–629Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    TEASDALE RD 1984 Application of growth analysis to trace element nutrition: study of copper uptake with a Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) cell suspension culture. J Exp Bot 35: 1495–1506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    TEASDALE RD 1986 Generation of a sustainable Pinus radiate cell suspension culture and studies of cellular nitrogen nutrition. NZ J For Sci In pressGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    TEASDALE RD, PA DAWSON, HW WOOLHOUSE 1986 Mineral nutrient requirements of a Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) cell suspension culture: Evaluation of a medium formulated from seed composition data, Plant Physiol In reviewGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    TEASDALE RD, E RUGINI 1983 Preparation of viable protoplasts from suspension-cultured Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) cells and subsequent regeneration to callus. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 2: 253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    TERRY N 1977 Photosynthesis, growth, and the role of chloride. Plant Physiol 60: 69–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    THORNLEY JHM 1976 Mathematical Models in Plant Physiology. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    TURVEY ND 1984 Copper deficiency in Pinus radiata planted in a podzol in Victoria, Australia. Plant Soil 77: 73–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    UMALY RC, LW POEL 1970 Effects of various concentrations of iodine as potassium iodide on the growth of barley, tomato and pea in nutrient solution. Ann Bot 34: 919–926Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    VALLEE BL 1977 Recent advances in zinc biochemistry. In AW Addison, WR Cullen, D Dolphin, BR James, eds, Biological Aspects of Inorganic Chemistry. Wiley/Intersci, New York, pp 37–70Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    VAN CUTSEM P, C GILLET 1982 Activity coefficients and selectivity values of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ca2+ ions adsorbed in the Nitella Flexilis L. cell wall during triangular ion exchanges. J Exp Bot 33: 847–853Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    VELTRUP W. F-A AUSTENFELD 1981 The uptake of copper by cell suspension cultures of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. SAXA. Plant Cell Rep 1: 31–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    WALKER CD, J WEBB 1981 Copper in plants: forms and behaviour. In JF Loneragan, AD Robson, RD Graham, eds, Copper in Soils and Plants. Academic Press, Sydney, pp 189–212Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    WELCH RM 1981 The biological significance of nickel. J Plant Nutr 3: 345–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    WILL GM 1978 Nutrient deficiencies in Pinus radiata in New Zealand. NZ J For Sci 8: 4–14Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. D. Teasdale

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations