Metabolic Changes and Their Characterization

  • Noor-ul Ain
  • Hira Gull


Metabolic dysfunctionality is undoubtedly the central phenomenon that marks the onset of malignancy in human body. Various hormones particularly adipokines work collectively with a purpose to maintain metabolic homeostasis in cells; however, metabolic disruptions occur as a result of up- and downregulation of metabolic elements that ultimately pave way toward cancer onset. In cancer cell metabolism, hypoxic environment along with upregulation of various oncogenes enables the metabolic transformation of tumor cells. Tumor cells undergo shift from normal metabolic pathways and adopt unique metabolic patterns, relying primarily upon aerobic glycolysis or “Warburg effect” to meet their energy requirements. Studies have also validated the role of mutated metabolic enzymes whose over- or under-expression leads to metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells. Meanwhile, a major bulk of cancer related research is focused upon “cancer stem cells” as they pose maximum resistance toward chemotherapeutic drugs. The current chapter sequentially discusses various cancer associated-metabolic mechanisms, drug resistance patterns, and functioning of various regulatory genes (oncogenes and anti-oncogenes) associated with metastasis, followed by a brief account of various therapeutic and dietary options which have validated potential in confronting these metabolic changes and, in turn, impeding cancer growth and proliferation.


Cancer metabolism Warburg effect Cancer stem cells Tumor suppressor Oncogenes 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noor-ul Ain
    • 1
  • Hira Gull
    • 1
  1. 1.Microbiology and Biotechnology Research Lab, Department of BiotechnologyFatima Jinnah Women UniversityRawalpindiPakistan

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