Advertisement

The History of Nepalese Forest Management and the Roles of Women

  • Radha Wagle
  • Soma Pillay
  • Wendy Wright
Chapter
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

A contextual insight is offered into the history of Nepalese forestry management with reference to women. First, the chapter provides insight into the importance of forest resources for Nepalese people. It reflects how different sections of the population (economically poor, economically well off, men, women, urban dwellers, village dwellers) use forests for various purposes. It also illustrates the existence of two-way relationships between people and forests and the involvement and contribution of people in the maintenance of state forest resources in Nepal. This section concludes that the people living closest to Nepal’s forests, usually in remote and rural areas of the country, have a greater dependency on forest resources. Within these communities, women and economically disadvantaged individuals rely most heavily on forests. It is therefore important to include these groups in decision-making and planning regarding forestry policy, processes and outcomes to ensure that resources are managed sustainably.

References

  1. Agarwal, B. (2010). Does women’s proportional strength affect their participation? Governing local forests in South Asia. World Development, 38(1), 98–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angelsen, A., & Wunder, S. (2003). Exploring the forest—Poverty link. CIFOR Occasional Paper (40), 1–20.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, L. (2008). Policy reform and culture change: Contesting gender, caste, and ethnic exclusion in Nepal. Inclusive States, 197.Google Scholar
  4. Bhatta, B., Karna, A. L., Dev, O. P., & Springate-Baginski, O. (Eds.). (2007). Participatory forest management in the Nepalese Tarai: Policy, practice and impacts. London, Sterling, VA: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  5. Bhattarai, K., Conway, D., & Shrestha, N. R. (2002). The vacillating evolution of forestry policy in Nepal: Historically manipulated, internally mismanaged. International Development Planning Review, 24(3), 315–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bista, D. B. (1991). Fatalism and development: Nepal’s struggle for modernization. Orient Blackswan.Google Scholar
  7. Blaikie, P. M., & Muldavin, J. S. S. (2004). Upstream, downstream, China, India: The politics of environment in the Himalayan region. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 94(3), 520–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blaikie, P., & Springate-Baginski, O. (Eds.). (2007). Understanding the policy process. London, Sterling, VA: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  9. Buchy, M. (2012). Securing women’s tenure and leadership for forest management: A summary of the Asian experience. Washington, DC: Rights and Resource Initiative.Google Scholar
  10. Buchy, M., & Rai, B. (Eds.). (2008). Do women-only approaches to natural resource management help women? The case of community forestry in Nepal. UK and USA: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  11. Buchy, M., & Subba, S. (2003). Why is community forestry a social- and gender-blind technology? The case of Nepal. Gender, Technology and Development, 7(3), 313–332.Google Scholar
  12. CBS. (2012). National population and housing census 2011. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal.Google Scholar
  13. Chapagain, A. (2012). [Interview with Apsara Chapagain-chair person].Google Scholar
  14. Christie, E. M., & Giri, K. (2011). Challenges and experiences of women in the forestry sector in Nepal. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 3(5), 139–146.Google Scholar
  15. Dahal, G. R., & Chapagain, A. (2008). Community forestry in Nepal: Decentralized forest governance. In C. J. P. Colfer, G. R. Dahal, & D. Capistrano (Eds.), Lessons from forest decentralization: Money, justice and the quest for good governance in Asia-Pacific (pp. 67–81). Londres, RU: Earthscan Publications.Google Scholar
  16. Dev, O. P., & Adhikary, J. (Eds.). (2007). Participatory forest management in the Nepalese Terai: Policy, practice and impacts. London, Sterling, VA: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  17. DFRS. (1999). Forest resources of Nepal (1987–1998). Publication No. 74. Kathmandu, Nepal: Government of Nepal.Google Scholar
  18. Dhakal, B., Bigsby, H., & Cullen, R. (2005). Impacts of community forestry development on livestock-based livelihood in Nepal. Journal of Forest and Livelihood, 4(2), 43–49.Google Scholar
  19. Eckholm, E. (1976). Losing ground. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 18(3), 6–11.Google Scholar
  20. Fortier, J. (2003). Reflections on Raute identity. Studies in Nepali History in Society, 8, 317–348.Google Scholar
  21. Fortier, J. (2009). The ethnography of south Asian foragers. Annual Review of Anthropology, 38, 99–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gautam, M., & Pokharel, B. (2011). Foreign aid and public policy process in Nepal: A case of forestry and local governance. Kathmandu, Nepal: Southasia Institute of Advanced Studies.Google Scholar
  23. Gautam, A., Shivakoti, G., & Webb, E. (2004). A review of forest policies, institutions, and changes in the resource condition in Nepal. International Forestry Review, 6(2), 136–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ghimire-Bastakoti, K., & Bastakoti, R. (2006). Social inclusion in community forestry: Why women are frequently excluded from decision-making and leadership in Nepal. Nepal: Resource Identification and Management Society.Google Scholar
  25. Giri, K., & Darnhofer, I. (2010). Nepali women using community forestry as a platform for social change. Society and Natural Resources, 23(12), 1216–1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Giri, K., & Faculty, I. (2008a). Profile of women graduates of the Institute of Forestry, Nepal problems of prospects for women in forestry and natural resource management (Vol. MemCoE IoF Discussion Paper # 22). Pokhara: IOF, Nepal.Google Scholar
  27. Giri, K., & Faculty, I. (2008b). Reflecting on experiences: Women in the forestry sector (Vol. MemCoE IoF Discussion Paper # 24). Pokhara, Nepal: Institute of Forestry.Google Scholar
  28. GoN. (2003). Guideline for community forestry program. Kathmandu: Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Department of Forests, Community Forestry Division.Google Scholar
  29. GoN. (2007). Forest sector gender and social inclusion strategy. Nepal: Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Government of Nepal.Google Scholar
  30. GoN. (2012a). Annual report. Kathmandu, Nepal: Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Government of Nepal.Google Scholar
  31. GoN. (2012b). Nepal in figure 2012. Kathmandu, Nepal: Government of Nepal (GoN), CBS.Google Scholar
  32. GoN. (2013). Hamro Ban. Katmandu, Nepal: Department of Forests, Government of Nepal.Google Scholar
  33. Gurung, J. D. (2002). Getting at the heart of the issue: Challenging male bias in Nepal’s department of forests. Mountain Research and Development, 22(3), 212–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gurung, H. B. (2006). From exclusion to inclusion: Socio political agenda for Nepal. Social Inclusion Research Fund.Google Scholar
  35. Hassan, R. M., Scholes, R., & Ash, N. (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: Current state and trends: Findings of the condition and trends working group (Vol. 1). Island Press.Google Scholar
  36. Hill, I. (1999). Forest management in Nepal: Economics and ecology. Washington, DC: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. HMGN. (1988). The forestry sector master plan. Kathmandu: Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, HMG/Nepal.Google Scholar
  38. HMGN. (1991). Civil Service Act. Retrieved from http://www.lawcommission.gov.np/en/documents/prevailing-laws/prevailing-acts/func-startdown/440/. Nepal Law Commission Government of Nepal (HMGN).
  39. HMGN. (1993). Forest Act 1993 (Official translation). Kathmandu, Nepal: His Majesty’s Government of Nepal.Google Scholar
  40. HMGN. (1995). Forest Regulation, 1995 (Official translation). Kathmandu, Nepal: His Majesty’s Government of Nepal.Google Scholar
  41. Hobley, M. (1996). Participatory forestry: The process of change in India and Nepal.Google Scholar
  42. Hobley, M., & Malla, Y. B. (Eds.). (1996). From forest to forestry—The three ages of forestry in Nepal: Privatisation, nationalisation, and populism. London: Overseas Development Institute.Google Scholar
  43. Joshi, N. M., & Maharjan, K. L. (2007). Institutional changes in forest resource management and change in forest coverage in Nepal. Journal of International Development and Cooperation, 13(1), 231.Google Scholar
  44. Khadka, M. (2009). Why does exclusion continue? Aid, knowledge and power in Nepal’s community forestry policy process. The Hague, The Netherlands: Erasmus University Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  45. Lama, A., & Buchy, M. (2002). Gender, class, caste and participation: The case of community forestry in Nepal. Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 9(1), 27–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Levi, W. (1952). Government and politics in Nepal: I. Far Eastern Survey, 21(18), 185–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Luintel, H. (2006). Do civil society organizations promote equity in community forestry? A reflection from Nepal’s experiences. In S. Mahanty, J. Fox, M. Nurse, P. Stephen, & L. McLees (Eds.), Hanging in the balance: Equity in community-based natural resource management in Asia (pp. 122–142). Bangkok: Regional Community Forestry Training Center for Asia and the Pacific (RECOFTC).Google Scholar
  48. Malla, Y. (2001). Changing policies and the persistence of patron-client relations in Nepal: Stakeholders’ responses to changes in forest policies. Environmental History, 6, 287–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. MHP. (2011). Nepal population report 2011. Kathmandu, Nepal: Population Division.Google Scholar
  50. Mies, M. (1988). From the individual to the dividual: In the supermarket of ‘reproductive alternatives’. Reproductive and Genetic Engineering, 1(3), 225–237.Google Scholar
  51. Mies, M., & Shiva, V. (Eds.). (1993). Ecofeminism. London; Halifax: Fernwood Publications.Google Scholar
  52. Mohai, P. (1992). Men, women, and the environment: An examination of the gender gap in environmental concern and activism. Society & Natural Resources, 5(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nightingale, A. J. (2002). Participating or just sitting in? The dynamics of gender and caste in community forestry. Journal of Forest and Livelihood, 2(1), 17–24.Google Scholar
  54. Nightingale, A. J. (2003). A feminist in the forest: Situated knowledges and mixing methods in natural resource management. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographers, 2(1), 77–90.Google Scholar
  55. Nightingale, A. J. (2005). The experts taught us all we know: Professionalisation and knowledge in Nepalese community forestry. Antipode, 37(3), 581–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nightingale, A. J. (2006). The nature of gender: Work, gender and environment. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 24(2), 165–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ojha, H. R. (2000). Current policy issues in NTFP development in Nepal. Kathmandu: Asia Network for Small-scale Bio-resources.Google Scholar
  58. Pathak, B., Kafle, N., & Pathak, A. (2011). Forest enterprise: Opportunities and challenges in the context of Nepal. Ashmita Nepal.Google Scholar
  59. Pokharel, S., & Chandrashekar, M. (1994). Biomass resources as energy in Nepal. Paper presented at the Natural Resources Forum, 18, 225.Google Scholar
  60. Regmi, M. C. (1978). Thatched huts and stucco palaces: peasants and landlords in 19th-century Nepal (Vol. 1). New Delhi: Vikas.Google Scholar
  61. Shiva, V. (1993). Masculinization of the motherland. In M. Miles & V. Shiva (Eds.), Ecofeminism (pp. 108–115). Melbourne: Spinifex.Google Scholar
  62. Springate-Baginski, O., & Blaikie, P. M. (2007). Forests, people and power: The political ecology of reform in South Asia. Earthscan.Google Scholar
  63. Springate-Baginski, O., Blaikie, P., Banerjee, A., Bhatta, B., Dev, O. P., Reddy, V. R., et al. (Eds.). (2007). Annexation, struggle and response: Forest, people and power in India and Nepal. London, Sterling, VA: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  64. Stern, N. (2008). The economics of climate change. The American Economic Review, 98(2), 1–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Upadhyay, B. (2005). Women and natural resource management: Illustrations from India and Nepal. Paper presented at the Natural Resources Forum.Google Scholar
  66. Wangari, E., Thomas-Slayter, B., & Rocheleau, D. (1996). Gendered visions for survival: Semi-arid regions in Kenya. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Whitehouse, P., Usher, T., Ruhlen, M., & Wang, W. S.-Y. (2004). Kusunda: An Indo-Pacific language in Nepal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(15), 5692–5695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. WOCAN. (2012). An assessment of gender and women’s exclusion in REDD+ in Nepal. Nepal, Thailand: Women Organizing for Change in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management.Google Scholar
  69. Yadav, B. D., Bigsby, H., & MacDonald, I. (2008). Who are controlling community forestry user groups in Nepal? Scrutiny of elite theory. Paper presented at the conference New Zealand Agricultural and Resource Economics Society Conference.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Radha Wagle
    • 1
  • Soma Pillay
    • 2
  • Wendy Wright
    • 3
  1. 1.Ministry of Forests and EnvironmentKathmanduNepal
  2. 2.Federation Business SchoolFederation University Australia Berwick CampusMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.School of Health and Life SciencesFederation University AustraliaGippslandAustralia

Personalised recommendations