Zhong and Zhongyong in the Discourse of the Philosophy of Mind
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The philosophy of mind is a branch of the Li School of Confucianism in the Song and Ming dynasties. Lu Xiangshan, Chen Baisha, and Wang Yangming were representative scholars. They believed the dualist structure of heavenly principle and human nature in the Li School of Confucianism was not enough, believing mind commanded everything. They believed “no reason and principle outside one’s mind, no worldly affairs outside one’s mind, no objects outside one’s mind.” In their opinion, zhong and zhongyong are a state of mind, and are not an objective existence. For scholars Chen Xianzhang and Wang Mingyang, the significance of zhong and zhongyong was to enhance the idea of mind commanding everything. For the left wing of the Philosophy of Mind, zhong and zhongyong was meant to standardize the behavior of monarchs.