Advertisement

Management of Strabismus in TED

  • Mithila Negalur
  • Ramesh KekunnayaEmail author
Chapter
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

The relationship between thyroid gland dysfunction and the severity of induced orbitopathy still remains to be well established and can manifest itself in a myriad of ophthalmic symptoms and signs ranging from mild ocular irritation to severe proptosis, strabismus, and optic nerve compression [1]. Of these manifold presentations, strabismus due to thyroid induced myopathy has been reported in a large range of patients (about 17–51%) whereas diplopia as the initial presentation may be seen in 15–20% of cases [2–5].

References

  1. 1.
    Bartley GB, Fatourechi V, Kadrmas EF, et al. Long-term follow-up of Graves ophthalmopathy in an incidence cohort. Ophthalmology. 1996;103(6):958–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lee HB, Rodgers IR, Woog JJ. Evaluation and management of Graves’ orbitopathy. Otolaryngol Clin N Am. 2006;39(5):923–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Waard R, Koorneef L, Verbatin B Jr. Motility disturbances in Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Doc Ophthalmol. 1983;56(1-2):41–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Asman P. Opthalmological evaluation in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Acta Ophthalmol Scan. 2003;81(15):437–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kendler DL, Lippa J, Rootman J. The initial characteristics of Graves’ orbitopathy vary with age and sex. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111(2):197–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eckstein AK, Johnson KT, Thanos M, Esser J, Ludgate M. Current insights into the pathogenesis of Graves’ orbitopathy. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41(6):456–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dyer JA. The oculorotary muscles in Graves’ disease. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1976;74:425–56.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dagi LR, Elliott AT, Roper-Hall G, Cruz OA. Thyroid eye disease: honing your skills to improve outcomes. J AAPOS. 2010;14(5):425–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Akbari MR, Ameri A, Keshtkar Jaafari AR, Mirmohammadsadeghi A. Botulinum toxin injection for restrictive myopathy of thyroid-associated orbitopathy: success rate and predictive factors. J AAPOS. 2016;20(2):126–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Granet DB, Ventura RH, Kikkawa DO, Levi L. Management of restrictive endocrine myopathy with botulinum toxin. American academy for paediatric ophthalmology and strabismus, 26th annual conference, San Diego: 2000Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nardi M. Squint surgery in TED—hints and fints, or why Graves’ patients are difficult patients. Orbit. 2009;28(4):245–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mills MD, Coats DK, Donahue SP, Wheeler DT. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Strabismus surgery for adults, a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(6):1255–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wallang BS, Kekunnaya R, Granet D. Curr Ophthalmol Rep. 2013;1:218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Al Qahtani ES, Rootman J, Kersey J, Godoy F, Lyons CJ. Clinical pearls and management recommendations for strabismus due to thyroid orbitopathy. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2015;22(3):307–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Volpe NJ, Mirza-George N, Binenbaum G. Surgical management of vertical ocular misalignment in thyroid eye disease using an adjustable suture technique. J AAPOS. 2012;16(6):518–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sharma P, Reinecke RD. Single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery for restrictive strabismus. J AAPOS. 2003;7(5):358–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Buckley EG. Restrictive strabismus. In: Plager DA, editor. Strabismus surgery: basic and advanced strategies. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fells P, Kousoulides L, Pappa A, Munro P, Lawson J. Extraocular muscle problems in thyroid eye disease. Eye (Lond). 1994;8(Pt 5):497–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ellis FD. Strabismus surgery for endocrine ophthalmopathy. Ophthalmology. 1979;86(12):2059–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shorr N, Neuhaus RW, Baylis HI. Ocular motility problems after orbital decompression for dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. Ophthalmology. 1982;89(4):323–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Flanders M, Hastings M. Diagnosis and surgical management of strabismus associated with thyroid-related orbitopathy. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1997;34(6):333–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Salchow DJ. Inferior oblique recession in thyroid-related orbitopathy. JAAPOS. 2015;19(3):274–7.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nguyen VT, Park DJJ, Levin L, Feldon SE. Correction of restricted extraocular muscle motility in surgical management of strabismus in Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Ophthalmology. 2002;109(2):384–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yoo SH, Pineles SL, Goldberg RA, Velez FG. Rectus muscle resection in Graves’ ophthalmopathy. J AAPOS. 2013;17(1):9–15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yan J, Zhang H. The surgical management of strabismus with large angle in patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Int Ophthalmol. 2008;28(2):75–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mourits MP, Koorneef L, van Mourik-Noordenbos AM, van der Meulen-Schot HM, Prummel MF, Wiersinga WM, Berghout A. Extraocular muscle surgery for Graves’ ophthalmopathy: does prior treatment influence surgical outcome? Br J Ophthalmol. 1990;74(8):481–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Greenwald MJ. Intraoperative muscle loss due to muscle-tendon dehiscence. American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Sixteenth Annual Meeting, July 30, 1990Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ellis EM, Kinori M, Robbins SL, Granet DB. Pulled-in-two syndrome multicenter survey of risk factors, management and outcomes. J AAPOS. 2016;20(5):387–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ruttum MS. Effect of prior orbital decompression on outcome of strabismus surgery in patients with thyroid ophthalmopathy. J AAPOS. 2000;4(2):102–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dal Canto AJ, Crowe S, Perry JD, Traboulsi EI. Intraoperative relaxed muscle positioning technique for strabismus repair in thyroid eye disease. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(12):2324–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LV Prasad Eye InstituteHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus ServiceChild Sight Institute, LV Prasad Eye InstituteHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations