Advertisement

Charcoal as a Fire Proxy

  • Cathy Whitlock
  • Chris Larsen
Chapter
Part of the Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research book series (DPER, volume 3)

Keywords

charcoal analysis fire history lake-sediment records 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agee, J. K., 1993. Fire ecology of Pacific North west forests. Island Press. Washington, DC, 493 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, R. S., R. B. Davis, N. G. Miller & R. Stuckenrath, 1986. History of late-and post-glacial vegetation and disturbance around Upper South Branch Pone, northern Maine. Can. J. Bot. 64: 1977–1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, R. S. & S. J. Smith, 1997. The sedimentary record of fire in montane meadows. Sierra Nevada, California, USA: a preliminary assessment. In Clark, J. S., H. Cachier, J. G. Goldammer, B. Stocks (eds.) Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change. NATO ASI Series 1: Global Environmental Change, vol. 51, Springer (Berlin): 313–328.Google Scholar
  4. Andreae, M. O., 1991. Biomass burning: its history, use, and distribution and its impact on environmental quality and global climate. In Levin, J. (ed.) Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic, and Biospheric Implications. MIT Press, Cambridge (MA): 3–21.Google Scholar
  5. Arno, S. F. & K. M. Sneck, 1977. A method for determining fire history in coniferous forests in the mountain west. U.S.D.A. Forest Service General Technical Report, INT-42, 28 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Birks, H. J. B., 1997. Reconstructing environmental impacts of fire from the Holocene sedimentary record. In Clark, J. S., H. Cachier, J. G. Goldammer & B. Stocks (eds.) Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change. NATO ASI Series 1: Global Environmental Change, vol. 851, Springer (Berlin): 295–312.Google Scholar
  7. Bradbury, J. P., 1996. Charcoal deposition and redeposition in Elk Lake. Minnesota, USA. The Holocene 6: 339–344.Google Scholar
  8. Brunelle, A. & R. S. Anderson, in press. Sedimentary charcoal as an indicator of late Holocene drought in the Sierra Nevada, California and its relevance to the future. The Holocene.Google Scholar
  9. Chandler, C., P. Cheney, P. Thomas, L. Trabaud & D. Williams, 1983. Fire in forestry: volume I: forest fire behaviour and effects. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Clark, J. S., 1988a. Particle motion and the theory of stratigraphic charcoal analysis: source area, transport, deposition, and sampling. Quat. Res. 30: 67–80.Google Scholar
  11. Clark, J. S., 1988b. Stratigraphic charcoal analysis on petrographic thin sections: applications to fire history in northwestern Minnesota. Quat. Res. 30: 81–91.Google Scholar
  12. Clark, J. S., 1990. Fire and climate change during the last 750 years in northwestern Minnesota. Ecol. Mon. 60: 135–159.Google Scholar
  13. Clark, J. S. & T. C. Hussey, 1996. Estimating the mass flux of charcoal from sedimentary records: effects of particle size, morphology, and orientation. The Holocene 6: 129–145.Google Scholar
  14. Clark, J. S. & W. A. Patterson, III, 1997. Background and local charcoal in sediments: scales of fire evidence in the paleorecord. In Clark, J. S., H. Cachier, J. G. Goldammer & B. Stocks (eds.) Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change. NATO ASI Series 1: Global Environmental Change, vol. 51, Springer (Berlin): 23–48.Google Scholar
  15. Clark, J. S. & P. D. Royall, 1995. Particle size evidence for source areas of charcoal accumulation in late Holocene sediments of eastern North American lakes. Quat. Res. 43: 80–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clark, J. S. & P. D. Royall, 1996. Local and regional sediment charcoal evidence for fire regimes in presettlement northeastern North America. J. Ecol. 84: 365–382.Google Scholar
  17. Clark, J. S., J. Lynch, J. B. Stocks & J. Goldammer, 1998. Relationships between charcoal particles in air and sediments in West-central Siberia. The Holocene 8: 19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clark, J. S., J. Merk & H. Muller, 1989. Post glacial fire, vegetation and human history of the northern Alpine forelands, south-western Germany. J. Ecol. 77: 897–925.Google Scholar
  19. Clark, R. L., 1982. Point count estimation of charcoal in pollen preparations and thin sections of sediment. Pollen Spores 24: 523–535.Google Scholar
  20. Clark, R. L., 1984. Effects on charcoal of pollen preparation procedures. Pollen Spores 26: 559–576.Google Scholar
  21. Cwynar, L. C., 1978. Recent history of fire and vegetation from annually laminated sediment of Greenleaf Lake, Algonquin Park, Ontario. Can. J. Bot. 56: 10–12.Google Scholar
  22. Cwynar, L. C., 1987. Fire and the forest history of the north Cascade Range. Ecol. 68: 791–802.Google Scholar
  23. Earle, C. J., L. B. Brubaker & P. M. Anderson, 1996. Charcoal in northcentral Alaskan lake sediments: relationships to fire and late-Quaternary vegetation history. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 92: 83–95.Google Scholar
  24. Gardner, J. J. & C. Whitlock, 2001. Charcoal accumulation following a recent fire in the Cascade Range, northwestern USA, and its relevance for fire-history studies. The Holocene. 11: 541–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gedye, S. J., R. T. Jones, W. Tinner, B. Ammann & F. Oldfield, 2000. The use of mineral magnetism in the reconstruction of fire history: a case study from Lago di Origlio, Swiss Alps. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 164: 101–110.Google Scholar
  26. Green, D. G., 1981. Time series and postglacial forest ecology. Quat. Res. 15: 265–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Green, D. G., 1983. The ecological interpretation of fine resolution pollen records. New Phytol. 94: 459–477.Google Scholar
  28. Hallett, D. J. & R. C. Walker, 2000. Paleoecology and its application to fire and vegetation management in Kootenay National Park, British Colombia. J. Paleolimnology 24: 401–414.Google Scholar
  29. Hilton, J., 1985. A conceptual framework for predicting the occurrence of sediment focusing and sediment redistribution in small lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 30: 1131–1143.Google Scholar
  30. Horn, S. P., 1993. Postglacial vegetation and fire history in the Chirripa Paramo of Costa Rica. Quat. Res. 40: 107–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Horn, S. P., R. D. Horn & R. Byrne, 1992. An automated charcoal scanner for paleoecological studies. Palynology. 16: 7–12.Google Scholar
  32. Iversen, J., 1941. Land occupation in Denmark’s Stone Age. Danmarks Geologiske Forenhandlungen II 66.Google Scholar
  33. Johnson, E. A. & S. L. Gutsell, 1994. Fire frequency models, methods and interpretations. Adv. Ecol. Res. 25: 239–287.Google Scholar
  34. Kipfmueller, K. F. & W. L. Baker, 1998. A comparison of three techniques to date stand-replacing fires in lodgepole pine forests. Forest Ecol. & Manage. 104: 171–177.Google Scholar
  35. Laird, L. D. & I. D. Campbell, 2000. High resolution palaeofire signals from Christina lake, Alberta: a comparison of the charcoal signals extracted by two different methods. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 164: 111–123.Google Scholar
  36. Larsen, C. P. S., 1996. Fire and climate dynamics in the boreal forest of northern Alberta. Canada, from AD 1850 to 1989. The Holocene 6: 449–456.Google Scholar
  37. Larsen, C. P. S. & G. M. MacDonald, 1998a. An 840-year record of fire and vegetation in a boreal white spruce forest. Ecology 79: 106–118.Google Scholar
  38. Larsen, C. P. S. & G. M. MacDonald, 1998b. Fire and vegetation dynamics in a jack pine and black spruce forest reconstructed using fossil pollen and charcoal. J. Ecol. 86: 815–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Long, C. J., C. Whitlock, P. J. Bartlein & S. H. Millspaugh, 1998. A 9000-year fire history from the Oregon Coast Range, based on a high-resolution charcoal study. Can. J. For. Res. 28: 774–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. MacDonald, G. M., 1989. Postglacial palaeoecology of the subalpine forest-grassland ecotone of southwestern Alberta: new insights on vegetation and climate change in the Canadian Rocky Mountains and adjacent foothills. Palaeogeog., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 73: 155–173.Google Scholar
  41. MacDonald, G. M., C. P. S. Larsen, J. M. Szeicz & K. A. Moser, 1991. The reconstruction of boreal forest fire history from lake sediments: a comparison of charcoal, pollen, sedimentological, and geochemical indices. Quat. Sci. Rev. 10: 53–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mehringer, P. J., S. F. Arno & K. L. Petersen, 1977. Postglacial history of Lost Trail Pass Bog, Bitterroot Mountains, Montana. Arct. Alp. Res. 9: 345–368.Google Scholar
  43. Meyer, G. A., S. G. Wells & A. J. T. Jull, 1995. Fire and alluvial chronology in Yellowstone National Park: climatic and intrinsic controls on Holocene geomorphic processes. Geol. Soc Amer. Bull. 107: 1211–1230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Millspaugh, S. H., 1997. Late-glacial and Holocene variations in fire frequency in the Central Plateau and Yellowstone-Lamar Provinces of Yellowstone National Park. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.Google Scholar
  45. Millspaugh, S. H. & C. Whitlock, 1995. A 750-year fire history based on lake sediment records in central Yellowstone National Park. USA. The Holocene 5: 283–292.Google Scholar
  46. Millspaugh, S. H., C. Whitlock & P. J. Bartlein, 2000. Variations in fire frequency and climate over the last 17,000 years in central Yellowstone National Park. Geology 28: 211–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mohr, J. A., C. Whitlock & C. J. Skinner, 2000. Postglacial vegetation and fire history, eastern Klamath Mountains. California. The Holocene 10: 587–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Morris, S. E. & T. A. Moses, 1987. Forest fire and the natural soil erosion regime in the Colorado Front Range. Ann. Assoc. Amer. Geog. 77: 245–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ohlson, M. & E. Tryterud, 2000. Interpretation of the charcoal record in forest soils: forest fires and their production and deposition of macroscopic charcoal. The Holocene 10: 519–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Patterson, W. A. III & A. E. Backman, 1988. Fire and disease history of forests. In Huntley, B. & T. Webb III (eds.) Vegetation History. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, p. 603–632.Google Scholar
  51. Patterson, W. A., III, K. J. Edwards & D. J. MacGuire, 1987. Microscopic charcoal as a fossil indicator of fire. Quat. Sci. Rev. 6: 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pearl, C. A., 1999. A Holocene environmental history of the Willamette Valley, Oregon: insights from an 11,000-year-record from Beaver lake. M.S. thesis, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.Google Scholar
  53. Pitkänen, A. & P. Huttunen. 1999. A 1300-year forest-fire history at a site in eastern Finland based on charcoal and pollen records in laminated lake sediment. The Holocene 9: 311–320.Google Scholar
  54. Pyne, S. J., P. L. Andrews & R. D. Laven, 1996. Introduction to Wildland Fire. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 769 pp.Google Scholar
  55. Radtke, L. F., D. A. Hegg, P. V. Hobbs, J. D. Nance, J. H. Lyons, K. K. Laursen, R. E. Weiss, P. J. Riggan & D. E. Ward, 1991. Particulate and trace gass emissions from large biomass fires in North America. In Levine, J. S. (ed.) Global Biomass Burning: Atmospheric, Climatic, and Biospheric Implications. MIT Press, Cambridge (MA): 209–224.Google Scholar
  56. Rhodes, T. E. & R. B. Davis, 1995. Effects of late Holocene forest disturbance and vegetation change on acidic Mud Pond. Maine, USA. Ecology 76: 734–746.Google Scholar
  57. Romme, W. H., 1980. Fire history terminology: report of the ad hoc committee. In: Proceedings of the Fire History Workshop. Tucson, Arizona, p. 135–137. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81.Google Scholar
  58. Sander, P. M. & C. T. Gee, 1990. Fossil charcoal: techniques and applications. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 63: 269–279.Google Scholar
  59. Sarmaja-Korjonen, K., 1998. Latitudinal differences in the influx of microscopic charred particles to lake sediments in Finland. The Holocene 8: 589–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stockmarr, J., 1971. Tablets with spores used in absolute pollen analysis. Pollen Spores 13: 615–621.Google Scholar
  61. Stuiver, M., P. J. Reimer, E. Bard, J. W. Beck, G. S. Burr, K. A. Hughen, B. Kramer, G. McCormac, J. Van der Plicht & M. Spurk, 1998. INTCAL 89 radiocarbon age calibration, 24,000-0 cal B.P. Radiocarbon 40: 1041–1083.Google Scholar
  62. Sugita, S., 1994. Pollen representation of vegetation in Quaternary sediments: I. Theory and methods in patchy vegetation. J. Ecol. 82: 881–897.Google Scholar
  63. Sugita, S., G. M. MacDonald & C. P. S. Larsen, 1997. Reconstruction of fire disturbance and forest succession from fossil pollen in lake sediments: potential and limitations. In Clark, J. S., H. Cachier, J. G. Goldammer & B. Stocks (eds.) Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change. NATO ASI Series 1: Global Environmental Change, vol. 51, Springer (Berlin): 387–412.Google Scholar
  64. Swain, A. M., 1973. A history of fire and vegetation in northeastern Minnesota as recorded in lake sediments. Quat. Res. 3: 383–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Swain, A. M., 1978. Environmental changes during the past 2000 yr in north-central Wisconsin: analysis of pollen, charcoal and seeds from varved lake sediments. Quat. Res. 10: 55–68.Google Scholar
  66. Swanson, F. J., 1981. Fire and geomorphic processes. In Mooney, H. A., T. M. Bonnicksen, N. L. Christensen, J. E. Lotan & W. A. Reiners (eds.) Proceedings, Fire Regimes and Ecosystem Properties. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-28: 401–420.Google Scholar
  67. Szeicz, J. M. & G. M. MacDonald, 1991. Postglacial vegetation of oak savanna in southern Ontario. Can. J. Bot. 93: 1507–1519.Google Scholar
  68. Terasmae, J. & N. C. Weeks, 1979. Natural fires as an index of paleoclimate. Can. Field Naturalist 93: 116–125.Google Scholar
  69. Thompson, R. & F. Oldfield, 1986. Environmental Magnetism. Allen and Unwin Ltd., London, England, 227 pp.Google Scholar
  70. Tinner, W., M. Conedera, B. Ammann, H. W. Gaggeler, S. Gedye, R. Jones & B. Sagesser, 1998. Pollen and charcoal in lake sediments compared with historically documented forest fires in southern Switzerland since AD 1920. The Holocene 8: 31–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tinner, W., P. Hubschmid, M. Wehrli, B. Ammann & M. Conedera, 1999. Long-term forest fire ecology and dynamics in southern Switzerland. J. Ecol. 87: 273–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tolonen, M., 1978. Palaeoecology of annually laminated sediments in Lake Ahvenainen, S. Finland. I. Pollen and charcoal analyses and their relation to human impact. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 15: 177–208Google Scholar
  73. Tolonen, K., 1986. Charred particle analysis. In Berglund, B. E. (ed.) Handbook of Holocene Palaeoecology and Palaeohydrology. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., New York: 485–496.Google Scholar
  74. Umbanhowar, C. E., Jr., 1996. Recent fire history of the northern Great Plains. Amer. Midl. Nat. 135: 115–121.Google Scholar
  75. Umbanhowar, C. E., Jr. & M. J. McGrath, 1998. Experimental production and analysis of microscopic charcoal from wood, leaves, and grasses. The Holocene 8: 341–346.Google Scholar
  76. Van Wagner, C. E., 1978. Age-class distribution and the forest fire cycle. Can. J. For. Res. 8: 220–227.Google Scholar
  77. Vaughan, A. & G. Nichols, 1995. Controls on the deposition of charcoal: implications for sedimentary accumulations of fusain. J. Sed. Res. A65: 129–135.Google Scholar
  78. Waddington, J. C. B., 1969. A stratigraphic record of the pollen influx to a lake in the Big Woods of Minnesota. Geol. Soc. Amer., Spec. Pap. 123: 263–283.Google Scholar
  79. Ward, D. E. & C. C. Hardy, 1991. Smoke emissions from wildland fires. Env. Intl 17: 117–134.Google Scholar
  80. Whitlock, C. & R. S. Anderson, in press. Fire history reconstructions based on sediment records from lakes and wetlands. In Veblen, T. T., W. L. Baker, G. Montenegro & T. W. Swetnam (eds.) Fire and Climate Change in the Americas. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  81. Whitlock, C. & S. H. Millspaugh, 1996. Testing assumptions of fire history studies: an examination of modern charcoal accumulation in Yellowstone National Park. The Holocene 6: 7–15.Google Scholar
  82. Winkler, M. G., 1985. Charcoal analysis for paleoenvironmental interpretation: a chemical assay. Quat. Res. 23: 313–326.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cathy Whitlock
    • 1
  • Chris Larsen
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of OregonEugeneUSA
  2. 2.Department of GeographyUniversity of Buffalo, SUNYBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations