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Receptor-Specific Targeting with Complementary Peptide Nucleic Acids Conjugated to Peptide Analogs and Radionuclides

  • Eric Wickstrom
  • Mathew L. Thakur
  • Edward R. Sauter
Chapter
Part of the Medical Intelligence Unit book series (MIUN)

Abstract

Genomic sequencing makes it possible to identify all the genes of an organism, now including Homo sapiens. Yet measurement of the expression of each gene of interest still presents a daunting prospect. Northern blots, RNase protection assays, as well as microarrays and related technologies permit measurement of gene expression in total RNA extracted from cultured cells or tissue samples. It would be most valuable, however, to quantitate gene expression noninvasively in living cells and tissues. Unfortunately, no reliable method has been available to measure levels of specific mRNAs in vivo. Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) display superior ruggedness and hybridization properties as a diagnostic tool for gene expres-sion, and could be used for this purpose. On the down side, they are negligibly internalized by normal or malignant cells in the absence of conjugated ligands. Nevertheless, we have observed that Tc-99m-peptides can delineate tumors, and PNA-peptides designed to bind to IGF-1 receptors on malignant cells are taken up specifically and concentrated in nuclei. We have postulated that antisense Tc-99m-PNA-peptides will be taken up by human cancer cells, will hybridize to complementary mRNA targets, and will permit scintigraphic imaging of oncogene mRNAs in human cancer xenografts in a mouse model. The oncogenes cyclin D1, ERBB2, c-MYC, K-RAS, and tumor suppressor p53 are being probed initially. These experiments pro-vide a proof-of-principle for noninvasive detection of oncogene expression in living cells and tissues. This scintigraphic imaging technique should be applicable to any particular gene of interest in a cell or tissue type with characteristic receptors.

Keywords

Peptide Nucleic Acid Organotypic Culture Scintigraphic Imaging Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Human Cancer Xenograft 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Eurekah.com and Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric Wickstrom
    • 1
  • Mathew L. Thakur
    • 2
  • Edward R. Sauter
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department of Microbiology and Immunology Kimmel Cancer Center Cardeza Foundation for Hematologic Research Jefferson Medical CollegeThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiology Kimmel Cancer Center Jefferson Medical CollegeThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Surgery Ellis Fischel Cancer CenterUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA

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