Advertisement

From “Alcohol, Society and the State” to “Broken Spirits” to...

  • P. Sulkunen
Chapter

Abstract

The alcohol policy doctrine that emerged during the era when modern welfare states were consolidated resulted from a battle between two options: the medical model and the epidemiological total consumption framework. This development was described and analysed in Alcohol, Society and the State. It saw the medical model as an alternative to and a competitor with alcohol control, meaning A any government measure to the purchase, production, or trade of alcoholic beverages @. Alcohol control as an instrument of prevention was grounded in what I here call the population argument — a public health theory that sets priority on rates of problems in a population rather than their individual determination. It further argues that rates of problems depend on rates of exposure, i.e. availability and consumption. Even if the practical implications of the population argument have nowhere been fully implemented, the argumentation became dominant among experts. This paper discusses the reasons why the epidemiological approach is compatible with welfare state thinking, and why its legitimacy depends on the social philosophy that underlies it, rather than technical or evidence-based considerations. This connection between the epidemiological approach and welfare state thinking is discussed in the context the changing Nordic ideas and power structures in Broken Spirits. The conclusion is that the epidemiological approach is experiencing difficulties to the extent to which the legitimacy of the welfare state is weakened.

Key words

alcohol control epidemiology population total consumption welfare state 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allardt, E. (1998): Det goda samhället. Välfärd, livsstil och medborgardygder (The public good. Welfare, livestyle and civil virtues). Tidskrift för Velferdsforskning 1 (3), 123–133.Google Scholar
  2. Bacon, S.D. (1945): Alcohol and complex society. In Alcohol, Science and Society. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. New Haven. (Revised in: Pittman, D.J. and Snyder, E. (Eds.) (1962): Society, Culture and Drinking Patterns. New York: Wiley).Google Scholar
  3. Barrows, S. (1991). Parliaments of the People. The Political Culture of Cafés in the Early Third Republic. In Barrows, S. & Room, R. (eds.). Drinking Behaviour and Belief in Modern History. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bosk, C. (1995). All God’s Mistakes. Genetic Couseling in a Pediatric Hospital. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bourdieu, P. (1986): Distinction. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Brennan, T. (1989). Public Drinking and Popular Culture in Eighteenth Century Paris. (New Jersey, Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  7. Bruun, K. (1971a). Alkoholi: käyttö, vaikutukset, kontrolli (Alcohol: use, effects, control). Helsinki: Tammi.Google Scholar
  8. Bruun, K., (1971b). Finland: The non-medical approach. In Kiloh, L.G. & Bell, D.S. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th International Congress on Alcoholism & Drug Dependence. Butterworths, Australia: Chatswood.Google Scholar
  9. Bruun, K. (1985): Maktens centru, m — central administrationen. (The centre of power — the central administration). In Bruun & Fränberg (eds): Den svenska supen. En historia om brännvin, Bratt och byräkrati (Swedish drink. A story of voozing, Bratt and bureaucracy). Stockholm: Prisma.Google Scholar
  10. Bruun, K., Edwards, G., Lumio, M., Mäkelä, K., Pan, L., Popham, R. E., Room, R., Schmidt, W., Skog, O.-J., Sulkunen, P., & Österberg, Esa: Alcohol control policies in public health perspective. Helsinki, The Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, 1975, Vol. 25.Google Scholar
  11. Dean, M. (1999): Governmentality. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. Dorchester, D. (1884). The Liquor Problem in All Ages. New York: Phillips Hunt.Google Scholar
  13. Edwards, G., Anderson, P., Babor, T. F., & et al. (1994). Alcohol Policy and the Public Good. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Elias, N. (1978). The History of Manners. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  15. Foucault, M. (1976). Histoire de la sexualité 1. La volonté de savoir. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  16. Foucault, M. (1991). Governmentality. In Burchell, Gordon and Miller (eds): The Foucault Effect. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  17. Harrison, B. (1971). Drink and the Victorians. The Temperance Question in England, 1815–1872. (London, Faber).Google Scholar
  18. Hauge, R. (1998). Norsk alkohollovgivning gjennom 1000 år (Nordic alkohol legislation throughout 1000 years). Oslo: Rusmideelsdirektoratet.Google Scholar
  19. Hobsbawm, E. (1992). Nations and Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Hobsbawm, E. (1994): The Age of Extremes. The Short Twentieth Century. London: Abacus.Google Scholar
  21. Hirdman, Y. (1997). Social planning and rational control. Social engineering in Sweden in the 1’930s and 1940s. In: Kettunen, P. & Eskola, H. (eds) Models, Modernity and the Myrdals. Helsinki: The Renvall Institute.Google Scholar
  22. Järvinen, M. (1991). Kontrollerade kontrollörer — kvinnor, mån och alkohol (Controlled controllers — women, men and alcohol). Nordisk alkoholtidskrift. Vol. 8, pp. 143–152.Google Scholar
  23. Lupton, D. (1994). The Imperative of Health. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. Magnusson, L. (1985). Orsaker till det förindustriella drickandet. Supandet i hautverkets Eskilstuna (Causes of pre-industrial drinking). Alkoholpolitik, 2(1), 23–29.Google Scholar
  25. Mäkelä, Klaus & Room, Robin & Single, Eric & Sulkunen, Pekka & Walsh, Brendan: Alcohol, society, and the state 1. Toronto, Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario, 1981.Google Scholar
  26. Myrdal, A. and Myrdal, G. (1935) AKris i befolknings frågan @ (Crisis in the population question). Stockholm 1: Bonniers.Google Scholar
  27. Nycander, S. (1996). Svenskarna och spriten. Alkoholpolitik 1855–1995. (Swedes and spirits 1855–1995). Malmö: Sober.Google Scholar
  28. Sulkunen, P. (1983). Alcohol consumption and the transformation of living conditions. A comparative study. In Smart & Glaser & Israel & Kalant & Popham & Schmidt (eds). Research advances in alcohol and drug problems, Vol. 7, p. 247–297, London, Plenum.Google Scholar
  29. Sulkunen, P. & Warpenius, K. (2000). Reforming the self and the other: the temperance movement and the duality of modern subjectivity. Critical Public Health, Vol. 10, No.4, pp. 423–438.Google Scholar
  30. Stenius, K. (1999). Privat och offentligt i svensk alkoholistvård. (Private and public in Swedish alcoholism treatment). Lund: Arkiv.Google Scholar
  31. Tigerstedt, C. (2001). The Dissolution of Nordic Alcohol Control. Helsinki: Department of Social Policy, University of Helsinki.Google Scholar
  32. Sulkunen, Pekka & Tigerstedt, Christoffer & Suton, Caroline & Warpenius, Katariina: Broken Spirits. Power and Ideology in Nordic Alcohol Control. NAD Publications, Helösinki 2002.Google Scholar
  33. Sulkunen, P. and Ugland, T. (forthcoming). The Public Health Cycle. The Total Consumption Framework in French Alcohol Policy and the Evin Law.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Sulkunen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of HelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations