A Knowledge-Based Scenario Framework to Support Intelligent Planning Characters

  • Paul Hsueh-Min Chang
  • Yu-Hung Chien
  • Edward Chao-Chun Kao
  • Von-Wun Soo
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3661)


Agent technologies have been successfully applied to craft believable characters in interactive scenarios. However, intelligent characters specialized for a controlled scenario with a predefined story are inadequate for open-ended scenarios. The key to deal with the open-endedness problem lies in the characters’ ability to understand and analyze unexpected situations. Thus, an explicit representation of the environment is crucial. We found ontologies in the form of interconnected concepts to be an appropriate high-level representation because it enables character agents to reason about the world through inference. This paper proposes a knowledge-based framework for the construction of agent-based scenarios. The physical properties of the environment are dynamically converted to instances of concepts. We also show how an intelligent planning character, without any implicit knowledge about the scenario, can exploit the resources in the environment to make plans. With ontology support, characters show better adaptability and utilize the environment more creatively.


Multiagent System Description Logic Planning Agent Virtual Character Plan Step 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baader, F., Calvanese, D., McGuinness, D., Nardi, D., Patel-Schneider, P. (eds.): The Description Logic Handbook. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bellifemine, F., Poggi, A., Rimassa, G.: Jade, A FIPA-compliant Agent Framework. In: 4th International Conference on Practical Application of Intelligent Agents and Multi-Agent Technology (1999)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cantor, N., Kihlstrom, J.F.: Personality and Social Intelligence. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1987)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carroll, J.J., Dickinson, I., Dollin, C., Reynolds, D., Seaborne, A., Wilkinson, K.: Jena: Implementing the Semantic Web Recommendations. In: Proceedings of the 13th International World Wide Web Conference, pp. 74–83. ACM Press, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cavazza, M., Charles, F., Mead, S.J.: Interacting with Virtual Characters In Interactive Storytelling. In: Proc. of the First International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pp. 318–325. ACM Press, New York (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chang, P.H.-M., Chen, K.-T., Chien, Y.-H., Kao, E.C.-C., Soo, V.-W.: From Reality to Mind: A Cognitive Middle Layer of Environment Concepts for Believable Agents. In: Weyns, D., Van Dyke Parunak, H., Michel, F. (eds.) E4MAS 2004. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3374, pp. 57–73. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coddington, A.M., Luck, M.: A Motivation-based Planning and Execution Framework. International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools 13(1), 5–25 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dickinson, I., Wooldridge, M.: Towards Practical Reasoning Agents for the Semantic Web. In: Proceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pp. 827–834. ACM Press, New York (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Doyle, P.: Believability through Context: Using Knowledge in the World to Create Intelligent Characters. In: Proc. of the First International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pp. 342–349. ACM Press, New York (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ghallab, M., Nau, D., Traverso, P.: Automated Planning: Theory and Practice. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco (2004)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gratch, J.: Socially Situated Planning. In: AAAI Fall Symposium on Socially Intelligent Agents - The Human in the Loop, North Falmouth, MA, pp. 61–64 (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Knublauch, H., Musen, M.A., Rector, A.L.: Editing Description Logic Ontologies with Protégé OWL Plugin. In: Proceedings of the 2004 International Workshop on Description Logics, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada (2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marsella, S., Johnson, W.L., LaBore, C.: Interactive Pedagogical Drama for Health Interventions. In: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Australia (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Novak, J.D.: The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct Them (2001). Available on
  15. 15.
    Riedl, M.O., Young, R.M.: An Intent-Driven Planner for Multi-Agent Story Generation. In: Proc. of the Third International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pp. 186–193. IEEE Computer Society, Washington (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Smith, M.K., Welty, C., McGuinnes, D.L. (eds.): OWL Web Ontology Language Guide. W3C Recommendation (2004),
  17. 17.
    Thalmann, D., Farenc, N., Boulic, R.: Virtual Human Life Simulation and Database: Why and How. In: International Symposium on Database Applications in Non-Traditional Environments, pp. 471–479. IEEE Computer Society, Washington (1999)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Traum, D., Rickel, J., Gratch, J., Marsella, S.: Negotiation over Tasks in Hybrid Human-Agent Teams for Simulation-Based Training. In: Proceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pp. 441–448. ACM Press, New York (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Hsueh-Min Chang
    • 1
  • Yu-Hung Chien
    • 1
  • Edward Chao-Chun Kao
    • 2
  • Von-Wun Soo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science 
  2. 2.Institute of Information Systems and ApplicationsNation Tsing Hua UniversityHsinchuTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Computer ScienceNational University of KaohsiungKaohsiungTaiwan

Personalised recommendations