Advertisement

Social Causality and Responsibility: Modeling and Evaluation

  • Wenji Mao
  • Jonathan Gratch
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3661)

Abstract

Intelligent virtual agents are typically embedded in a social environment and must reason about social cause and effect. Social causal reasoning is qualitatively different from physical causal reasoning that underlies most current intelligent systems. Besides physical causality, the assessments of social cause emphasize epistemic variables including intentions, foreknowledge and perceived coercion. Modeling the process and inferences of social causality can enrich the believability and the cognitive capabilities of social intelligent agents. In this paper, we present a general computational model of social causality and responsibility, and empirically evaluate and compare the model with several other approaches.

Keywords

Causal Reasoning Causal Information Primitive Action Team Plan Judgment Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Austin, J.: How to Do Things with Words. Harvard University Press (1962)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blythe, J.: Decision-Theoretic Planning. AI Magazine 20(2), 37–54 (1999)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chockler, H., Halpern, J.Y.: Responsibility and Blame: A Structural-Model Ap-proach. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 22, 93–115 (2004)zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gratch, J., Marsella, S.: A Domain-Independent Framework for Modeling Emo-tion. Journal of Cognitive Systems Research 5(4), 269–306 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Halpern, J.Y., Pearl, J.: Causes and Explanations: A Structural-Model Approach – Part I: Causes. In: Proceedings of the Seventeenth Conference in Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hopkins, M., Pearl, J.: Clarifying the Usage of Structural Models for Common-sense Causal Reasoning. In: Proceedings of AAAI Spring Symposium on Logic Formulizations of Commonsense Reasoning (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mao, W., Gratch, J.: The Social Credit Assignment Problem. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Working Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents (2003a)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mao, W., Gratch, J.: The Social Credit Assignment Problem (Extended Version). ICT Technical Report ICT-TR-02-2003 (2003b)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mao, W., Gratch, J.: Social Judgment in Multiagent Interactions. In: Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (2004a)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mao, W., Gratch, J.: Utility-Based Approach to Intention Recognition. In: AAMAS 2004 Workshop on Agent Tracking: Modeling Other Agents from Observations (2004b)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rice, J.A.: Mathematical Statistics and Data Analysis, 2nd edn. Duxbury Press (1994)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rickel, J., Marsella, S., Gratch, J., Hill, R., Traum, D., Swartout, W.: Toward a New Generation of Virtual Humans for Interactive Experiences. IEEE Intelligent Systems 17(4), 32–38 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shaver, K.G.: The Attribution of Blame: Causality, Responsibility and Blamewor-thiness. Springer, Heidelberg (1985)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Traum, D., Rickel, J., Gratch, J., Marsella, S.: Negotiation over Tasks in Hybrid Human-Agent Teams for Simulation-Based Training. In: Proceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Weiner, B.: Judgments of Responsibility: A Foundation for a Theory of Social Conduct. The Guilford Press, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weiner, B.: Responsibility for Social Transgressions: An Attributional Analysis. In: Malle, B.F., Moses, L.J., Baldwin, D.A. (eds.) Intentions and Intentionality: Foundations of Social Cognition, pp. 331–344. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zimmerman, M.J.: An Essay on Moral Responsibility. Rowman & Littlefield (1988)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wenji Mao
    • 1
  • Jonathan Gratch
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Creative TechnologiesUniversity of Southern CaliforniaMarina del ReyU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations