Advertisement

Teaching Virtual Characters How to Use Body Language

  • Doron Friedman
  • Marco Gillies
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3661)

Abstract

Non-verbal communication, or “body language”, is a critical component in constructing believable virtual characters. Most often, body language is implemented by a set of ad-hoc rules. We propose a new method for authors to specify and refine their character’s body-language responses. Using our method, the author watches the character acting in a situation, and provides simple feedback on-line. The character then learns to use its body language to maximize the rewards, based on a reinforcement learning algorithm.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cassell, J., Bickmore, T., Campbell, L., Chang, K., Vilhjálmsson, H., Yan, H.: Embodiment in conversational interfaces: Rea. In: ACM SIGCHI, pp. 520–527. ACM Press, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cassell, J., Vilhjálmsson, H.H., Bickmore, T.: BEAT: the behavior expression animation toolkit. In: ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 477–486 (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gillies, M., Dodgson, N.: Eye movements and attention for behavioural animation. Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation 13, 287–300 (2002)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gillies, M., Ballin, D.: A model of interpersonal attitude and posture generation. In: Rist, T., Aylett, R., Ballin, D., Rickel, J. (eds.) Fourth Workshop on Intelligent Virtual Agents, Kloster Irsee, Germany (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sutton, R.S., Barto, A.G.: Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction. MIT Press, Cambridge (1998)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kaelbling, L.P., Littman, M.L., Moore, A.W.: Reinforcement learning: A survey. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 4, 237–285 (1996)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blumberg, B., Downie, M., Ivanov, Y., Berlin, M., Johnson, M.P., Tomlinson, B.: Integrated learning for interactive synthetic characters. In: SIGGRAPH 2002: Proceedings of the 29th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, pp. 417–426. ACM Press, New York (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Isbell, C., Shelton, C.R., Kearns, M., Singh, S., Stone, P.: A social reinforcement learning agent. In: AGENTS 2001: Proceedings of the fifth international conference on Autonomous agents, pp. 377–384. ACM Press, New York (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Conde, T., Tambellini, W., Thalmann, D.: Behavioral animation of autonomous virtual agents helped by reinforcement learning. In: Rist, T., Aylett, R.S., Ballin, D., Rickel, J. (eds.) IVA 2003. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2792, pp. 175–180. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Guye-Vuilléme, A., Capin, T.K., Pandzic, I.S., Magnenat-Thalmann, N., Thalmann, D.: Non-verbal communication interface for collaborative virtual environments. The Virtual Reality Journal 4, 49–59 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    DeCarolis, B., Pelachaud, C., Poggi, I., Steedman, M.: APML, a markup language for believable behaviour generation. In: Prendiger, H., Ishizuka, M. (eds.) Life-like characters: tools, affective functions and applications, pp. 65–87. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pelachaud, C., Poggi, I.: Subtleties of facial expressions in embodied agents. Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation 13, 287–300 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rickel, J., Johnson, W.L.: Animated agents for procedural training in virtual reality: Perception, cognition, and motor control. Applied Artificial Intelligence 13, 343–382 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Garau, M., Slater, M., Bee, S., Sasse, M.A.: The impact of eye gaze on communication using humaniod avatars. In: ACM SIGCHI, pp. 309–316 (2001)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chi, D., Costa, M., Zhao, L., Badler, N.: The emote model for effort and shape. In: ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 173–182. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hall, E.T.: The Hidden Dimension. New York, Doubleday (1966)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cassell, J., Nakano, Y., Bickmore, T., Sidner, C., Rich, C.: Annotating and generating posture from discourse structure in embodied conversational agents. In: Workshop on Representing, Annotating, and Evaluating Non-Verbal and Verbal Communicative Acts to Achieve Contextual Embodied Agents, Autonomous Agents 2001 Conference, Montreal, Canada (2001)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bécheiraz, P., Thalmann, D.: A model of nonverbal communication and interpersonal relationship between virtual actors. In: Proceedings of the Computer Animation 1996, pp. 58–67. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gillies, M., Ballin, D.: Integrating autonomous behavior and user control for believable agents. In: Third international joint conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Columbia University, New York City (2004)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Steed, A., Mortensen, J., Frecon, E.: Spelunking: Experiences using the DIVE System on CAVE-like Platforms. In: Immersive Projection Technologies and Virtual Environments, vol. 2, pp. 153–164. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Frecon, E., Smith, G., Steed, A., Stenius, M., Stahl, O.: An overview of the COVEN platform. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 10, 109–127 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cruz-Neira, C., Sandin, D.J., DeFanti, T.A., Kenyon, R.V., Hart, J.C.: The CAVE: Audio visual experience automatic virtual environment. Comm. ACM 35, 65–72 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Slater, M., Usoh, M.: Presence in immersive virtual environments. In: Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality 1993, Seattle, WA, pp. 33–40 (1993)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Doron Friedman
    • 1
  • Marco Gillies
    • 1
  1. 1.Virtual Environment and Computer Graphics Lab, Department of Computer ScienceUniversity College of London 

Personalised recommendations