Advertisement

A Conversational Agent as Museum Guide – Design and Evaluation of a Real-World Application

  • Stefan Kopp
  • Lars Gesellensetter
  • Nicole C. Krämer
  • Ipke Wachsmuth
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3661)

Abstract

This paper describes an application of the conversational agent Max in a real-world setting. The agent is employed as guide in a public computer museum, where he engages with visitors in natural face-to-face communication, provides them with information about the museum or the exhibition, and conducts natural small talk conversations. The design of the system is described with a focus on how the conversational behavior is achieved. Logfiles from interactions between Max and museum visitors were analyzed for the kinds of dialogue people are willing to have with Max. Results indicate that Max engages people in interactions where they are likely to use human-like communication strategies, suggesting the attribution of sociality to the agent.

Keywords

Nonverbal Behavior Communicative Function Virtual Agent Conversational Agent Museum Visitor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Becker, C., Kopp, S., Wachsmuth, I.: Simulating the Emotion Dynamics of a Multimodal Conversational Agent. Affective Dialogue Systems (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bernsen, N.O., Dybkjær, L.: Domain-Oriented Conversation with H.C. Andersen. Affective Dialogue Systems (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bickmore, T., Cassell, J.: ‘How about this weather?’ Social Dialog with Embodied Conversational Agents. In: Proc. of AAAI Symposium on Socially Intelligent Agents (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cassell, J., Bickmore, T., Campbell, L., Vilhjalmsson, H., Yan, H.: Human Conversation as a System Framework: Designing Embodied Conversational Agents. In: Cassell, et al. (eds.) Embodied Conversational Agents. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cassell, J., Vilhjalmsson, H., Bickmore, T.: BEAT: The Behavior Expression Animation Toolkit. In: Proc. of SIGGRAPH 2001, Los Angeles, CA (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cassell, J., Stocky, T., Bickmore, T., Gao, Y., Nakano, Y., Ryokai, K., Tversky, D., Vaucelle, C., Vilhjalmsson, H.: MACK: Media lab Autonomous Conversational Kiosk. In: Proc. of Imagina 2002, Monte Carlo (2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gerhard, M., Moore, D.J., Hobbs, D.J.: Embodiment and copresence in collaborative interfaces. Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Stud. 61(4), 453–480 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gesellensetter, L.: Planbasiertes Dialogsystem für einen multimodalen Agenten mit Präsentationsfähigkeit (Plan-based dialog system for a multimodal presentation agent) Masters Thesis, University of Bielefeld (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gustafson, J., Lindberg, N., Lundeberg, M.: The August Spoken Dialogue System. In: Proc. of Eurospeech 1999, Budapest, Hungary (1999)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huber, M.J.: JAM: A BDI-Theoretic Mobile Agent Architecture. Proc. Autonomous Agents 1999, Seattle (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Isbister, K., Hayes-Roth, B.: Social Implications of Using Synthetic Characters. In: IJCAI-97 Workshop on Animated Interface Agents: Making them Intelligent, Nagoya, pp. 19–20 (1998)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jung, B., Kopp, S.: FlurMax: An Interactive Virtual Agent for Entertaining Visitors in a Hallway. In: Rist, T., et al. (eds.) Intelligent Virtual Agents, pp. 23–26. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kopp, S., Jung, B., Lessmann, N., Wachsmuth, I.: Max-A Multimodal Assistant in Virtual Reality Construction. KI-Künstliche Intelligenz 4/03, 11–17 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kopp, S., Wachsmuth, I.: Synthesizing Multimodal Utterances for Conversational Agents. Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds 15(1), 39–52 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krämer, N.C., Bente, G., Piesk, J.: The ghost in the machine. The influence of Embodied Conversational Agents on user expectations and user behaviour in a TV/VCR application. In: Bieber, G., Kirste, T. (eds.) IMC Workshop 2003, Assistance, Mobility, Applications, pp. 121–128, Rostock (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Krämer, N.C., Tietz, B., Bente, G.: Effects of embodied interface agents and their gestural activity. In: Rist, T., et al. (eds.) Intelligent Virtual Agents, pp. 292–300. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Krämer, N.C., Nitschke, J.: Ausgabemodalitäten im Vergleich: Verändern sie das Eingabeverhalten der Benutzer? (Output modalities compared: Do they change the input behavior of users?). In: Marzi, R., et al. (eds.) Bedienen & Verstehen 4. Berliner Werkstatt Mensch-Maschine-Systeme, pp. 231–248. VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leßmann, N., Wachsmuth, I.: A Cognitively Motivated Architecture for an Anthropomorphic Artificial Communicator. In: Proc. of ICCM-5, Bamberg (2003)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Oviatt, S., Darves, C., Coulston, R.: Toward adaptive Conversational interfaces: Modeling speech convergence with animated personas. ACM Trans. on CHI 3, 300–328 (2004)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pelachaud, C., Poggi, I.: Multimodal Communication between synthetic Agents. In: Proc. of Advanced Visual Interfaces, L’Aquila, Italy (1998)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rickenberg, R., Reeves, B.: The effects of animated characters on anxiety, task performance, and evaluations of user interfaces. Letters of CHI 2000, 49–56 (2000)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Traum, D.R., Rickel, J.: Embodied Agents for Multi-party Dialogue in Immersive Virtual Worlds. In: Proc. of AAMAS 2002 (2002)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wallace, R.S.: The Anatomy of A.L.I.C.E. Tech.report, ALICE AI Foundation (2000)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Weizenbaum, J.: ELIZA: a computer program for the study of natural language communication between men and machines. Communications of the ACM 9 (1996)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yuan, X., Chee, Y.S.: Embodied Tour Guide in an Interactive Virtual Art Gallery. In: International Conference on Cyberworlds (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Kopp
    • 1
  • Lars Gesellensetter
    • 2
  • Nicole C. Krämer
    • 3
  • Ipke Wachsmuth
    • 1
  1. 1.A.I. GroupUniversity of BielefeldBielefeldGermany
  2. 2.IPDUniversity of KarlsruheKarlsruheGermany
  3. 3.Dept. of PsychologyUniversity of CologneKölnGermany

Personalised recommendations