Engineering Runtime Requirements-Monitoring Systems Using MDA Technologies

  • James Skene
  • Wolfgang Emmerich
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3705)


The Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) technology toolset includes a language for describing the structure of meta-data, the MOF, and a language for describing consistency properties that data must exhibit, the OCL. Off-the-shelf tools can generate meta-data repositories and perform consistency checking over the data they contain. In this paper we describe how these tools can be used to implement runtime requirements monitoring of systems by modelling the required behaviour of the system, implementing a meta-data repository to collect system data, and consistency checking the repository to discover violations. We evaluate the approach by implementing a contract checker for the SLAng service-level agreement language, a language defined using a MOF meta-model, and integrating the checker into an Enterprise JavaBeans application. We discuss scalability issues resulting from immaturities in the applied technologies, leading to recommendations for their future development.


Object Constraint Language Object Management Group Eclipse Modelling Framework Model Drive Architecture Object Constraint Language Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    AndroMDA code generation tool,
  2. 2.
    Apache Jakarta Tomcat servlet container,
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    Java 2 Enterprise Edition,
  5. 5.
    Java Server Pages JSP v. 2.0 specification,
  6. 6.
    Novosoft Metadata Framework and UML Library (NSUML),
  7. 7.
    PHP: PHP Hypertext Preprocessor,
  8. 8.
    The Eclipse Modelling Framework (EMF),
  9. 9.
    The Kent Modelling Framework (KMF),
  10. 10.
    The Netbeans Meta-Data Repository (MDR) Project,
  11. 11.
    The Velocity Template Engine v1.4,
  12. 12.
    Akehurst, D., Linington, P., Patrascoiu, O.: OCL 2.0: Implementing the Standard. Technical report, Computer Laboratory, University of Kent (November 2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Evans, A.S., Kent, S.: Meta-modelling semantics of UML: the pUML approach. In: France, R.B., Rumpe, B. (eds.) UML 1999. LNCS, vol. 1723, pp. 140–155. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Feather, M.S., Fickas, S., van Lamsweerde, A., Ponsard, C.: Reconciling system requirements and runtime behavior. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Software Specification and Design, pp. 50–59 (1998)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Havelund, K., Rosu, G.: Monitoring java programs with java pathexplorer. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 55. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam (2001)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim, M., Kannan, S., Lee, I., Sokolsky, O., Viswanathan, M.: Java-mac: a run-time assurance tool for java programs. In: Havelund, K., Rosu, G. (eds.) Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 55. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim, M., Kannan, S., Lee, I., Sokolsky, O., Viswanathan, M.: Computational analysis of run-time monitoring - fundamentals of java-mac. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 70. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Linington, P.F., Milosevic, Z., Cole, J., Gibson, S., Kilkarni, S., Neal, S.: A unified behavioural model and a contract for extended enterprise. In: Data and Knowledge Engineering, vol. 51. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Linington, P.F.: Automating support for e-business contracts. In: Proc. of the EDOC 2004 Workshop on Contract Architectures and Languages, Monterey, California. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    The Object Management Group (OMG). The Meta-Object Facility v1.4, formal/2002-04-03 edition (April 2002)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    The Object Management Group (OMG). XML Metadata Interchange (XMI), v1.2, formal/02-01-01 edition (January 2002)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    The Object Management Group (OMG). The Unified Modelling Language v1.5, formal/2003-03-01 edition (March 2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Skene, J., Lamanna, D., Emmerich, W.: Precise service level agreements. In: Proc. of the 26th Int. Conference on Software Engineering, Edinburgh, UK, May 2004, pp. 179–188. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Skene
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Emmerich
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Computer ScienceUniversity College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations