The Running-Mode Analysis of Two-Party Optimistic Fair Exchange Protocols

  • Yuqing Zhang
  • Zhiling Wang
  • Bo Yang
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3802)


In this paper, we present a method of running-mode to analyze the fairness of two-party optimistic fair exchange protocols. After discussing the premises and assumptions of analysis introduced in this technique, we deduce all the possible running modes that may cause attack on the protocols. Then we illustrate our technique on the Micali’s Electronic Contract Signing Protocol (ECS1), and the checking results show that there are three new attacks on the protocol.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Zhang, Y.Q., Li, J.H., Xiao, G.Z.: An approach to the formal verification of the two-party cryptographic protocols. ACM Operating Systems Review 33(4), 48–51 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhang, Y.Q., Liu, X.Y.: An approach to the formal verification of the three-principal cryptographic protocols. ACM Operating Systems Review 38(1), 35–42 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Micali, S.: Simple and fast optimistic protocols for fair electronic exchange. In: Proc. of 22th Annual ACM Symp. on Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 12–19. ACM Press, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pagnia, H., Gartner, C.: On The Impossibility of Fair Exchange without a Trusted Third Party. Technical Report TUD-BS-1999-02, Darmstadt University of Technology (1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bao, F., Wang, G.L., Zhou, J.Y., Zhu, H.F.: Analysis and Improvement of Micali’s Fair Contract Signing Protocol. In: Wang, H., Pieprzyk, J., Varadharajan, V. (eds.) ACISP 2004. LNCS, vol. 3108, pp. 176–187. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuqing Zhang
    • 1
  • Zhiling Wang
    • 2
  • Bo Yang
    • 3
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Information SecurityGUCASBeijingChina
  2. 2.National Key Laboratory of ISNXidian UniversityXi’anChina
  3. 3.College of InformationSouth China Agricultural UniversityGuangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations