Advertisement

View Integration and Cooperation in Databases, Data Warehouses and Web Information Systems

  • Hui Ma
  • Klaus-Dieter Schewe
  • Bernhard Thalheim
  • Jane Zhao
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3730)

Abstract

View integration aims at replacing a set of existing views by a single new one in such a way that with respect to information capacity the new view dominates or is equivalent to the old ones. Therefore, in this article we first investigate a theory of schema equivalence and dominance for the higher-order Entity-Relationship model (HERM) based on the notion of computable queries. We then develop formal transformation rules for schema integration that are embedded in a pragmatic method telling how they should be applied for integration.

We then apply the approach to views, which occur as the basic constituents for user interfaces as formalised by the notion of dialogue type. In two follow-on steps we apply the rule-based view integration technique to data warehouses and web information systems. In the case of data warehouses the fundamental idea is the separation of input from operational databases and output to on-line analytical processing (OLAP) systems. Both the extraction of data from the operational databases and the definition of the data-marts for OLAP can be formulated by views.

In the case of web information systems, views form the core of media types, which provide abstract means for describing content, functionality, context and adaptivity to user preferences and intentions, end-devices, and channel limitations. In this case the queries defining the views must be highly expressive, as they must involve the creation of abstract identifiers, complex values and links. We extend the transformation rules to cope with these requirements.

View cooperation provides an alternative to view integration in which the integrated view is only virtual. That is the constituting views are kept and exchange functions are designed to provide the same functionality as if the views were integrated.

Keywords

view integration schema equivalence data warehouses web information systems view cooperation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abiteboul, S., Kanellakis, P.C.: Object identity as a query language primitive. In: Proceedings SIGMOD 1989, pp. 159–173 (1989)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Atzeni, P., Gupta, A., Sarawagi, S.: Design and maintenance of data-intensive web-sites. In: Schek, H.-J., Saltor, F., Ramos, I., Alonso, G. (eds.) EDBT 1998. LNCS, vol. 1377, pp. 436–450. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Biskup, J., Convent, B.: A formal view integration method. In: Proceedings of the 1986 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, pp. 398–407. Association for Computing Machinery (1986)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ceri, S., Fraternali, P., Bongio, A., Brambilla, M., Comai, S., Matera, M.: Designing Data-Intensive Web Applications. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chandra, A., Harel, D.: Computable queries for relational data bases. Journal of Computer and System Sciences 21 (1980)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Feyer, T., Kao, O., Schewe, K.-D., Thalheim, B.: Design of data-intensive web-based information services. In: Li, Q., Ozsuyoglu, Z.M., Wagner, R., Kambayashi, Y., Zhang, Y. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering (WISE 2000), pp. 462–467. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Feyer, T., Schewe, K.-D., Thalheim, B.: Conceptual modelling and development of information services. In: Ling, T.-W., Ram, S., Li Lee, M. (eds.) ER 1998. LNCS, vol. 1507, pp. 7–20. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Garzotto, F., Paolini, P., Schwabe, D.H.: HDM- a model-based approach to hypertext application design. ACM ToIS 11(1), 1–26 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hull, R.: Relative information capacity of simple relational database schemata. SIAM Journal of Computing 15(3), 856–886 (1986)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hull, R., Yap, C.K.: The FORMAT model: A theory of database organisation. Journal of the ACM 31(3), 518–537 (1984)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Inmon, W.: Building the Data Warehouse. Wiley & Sons, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kedad, Z., Métais, E.: Dealing with semantic heterogeneity during data integration. In: Akoka, J., Bouzeghoub, M., Comyn-Wattiau, I., Métais, E. (eds.) ER 1999. LNCS, vol. 1728, pp. 325–339. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Koh, J., Chen, A.: Integration of heterogeneous object schemas. In: Elmasri, R.A., Kouramajian, V., Thalheim, B. (eds.) ER 1993. LNCS, vol. 823, pp. 297–314. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Larson, J., Navathe, S.B., Elmasri, R.: A theory of attribute equivalence in databases with application to schema integration. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 15(4), 449–463 (1989)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lehmann, T.: Ein pragmatisches Vorgehenskonzept zur Integration und Kooperation von Informationssystemen. PhD thesis, TU Clausthal (1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lehmann, T., Schewe, K.-D.: A pragmatic method for the integration of higher-order Entity-Relationship schemata. In: Laender, A.H.F., Liddle, S.W., Storey, V.C. (eds.) ER 2000. LNCS, vol. 1920, pp. 37–51. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lewerenz, J., Schewe, K.-D., Thalheim, B.: Modelling data warehouses and OLAP applications using dialogue objects. In: Akoka, J., Bouzeghoub, M., Comyn-Wattiau, I., Métais, E. (eds.) ER 1999. LNCS, vol. 1728, pp. 354–368. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ludäscher, B., Gupta, A.: Modeling interactive web sources for information mediation. In: Kouloumdjian, J., Roddick, J., Chen, P.P., Embley, D.W., Liddle, S.W. (eds.) ER Workshops 1999. LNCS, vol. 1727, pp. 225–238. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Qian, X.: Correct schema transformations. In: Apers, P.M.G., Bouzeghoub, M., Gardarin, G. (eds.) EDBT 1996. LNCS, vol. 1057, pp. 114–126. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schewe, K.-D.: The power of media types. In: Zhou, X., Su, S., Papazoglou, M.P., Orlowska, M.E., Jeffery, K. (eds.) WISE 2004. LNCS, vol. 3306, pp. 233–238. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schewe, K.-D., Schewe, B.: Integrating database and dialogue design. Knowledge and Information Systems 2(1), 1–32 (2000)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schewe, K.-D., Thalheim, B.: Modeling interaction and media objects. In: Bouzeghoub, M., Kedad, Z., Métais, E. (eds.) NLDB 2000. LNCS, vol. 1959, pp. 313–324. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schewe, K.-D., Thalheim, B.: Reasoning about web information systems using story algebras. In: Benczúr, A.A., Demetrovics, J., Gottlob, G. (eds.) ADBIS 2004. LNCS, vol. 3255, pp. 54–66. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schewe, K.-D., Thalheim, B.: Structural media types in the development of data-intensive web information systems. In: Taniar, D., Rahayu, W. (eds.) Web Information Systems, pp. 34–70. IDEA Group, USA (2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schewe, K.-D., Thalheim, B.: Conceptual modelling of web information systems. Data and Knowledge Engineering 54(2), 147–188 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schewe, K.-D., Zhao, J.: Balancing redundancy and query costs in distributed data warehouses – an approach based on abstract state machines. In: Hartmann, S., Stumptner, M. (eds.) Conceptual Modelling 2005 – Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Conceptual Modelling, Newcastle, Australia. CRPIT, vol. 43, pp. 97–105. Australian Computer Society (2005)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schwabe, D., Rossi, G.: An object oriented approach to web-based application design. TAPOS 4(4), 207–225 (1998)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sciore, E., Siegel, M., Rosenthal, A.: Using semantic values to facilitate interoperability among heterogeneous information systems. ACM TODS 19(2), 254–290 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Spaccapietra, S., Parent, C.: View integration – a step forward in solving structural conflicts. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 6(2), 258–274 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Thalheim, B.: Entity-Relationship Modeling: Foundations of Database Technology. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Thalheim, B., Düsterhöft, A.: SiteLang: Conceptual modeling of internet sites. In: Kunii, H.S., Jajodia, S., Sølvberg, A. (eds.) ER 2001. LNCS, vol. 2224, pp. 179–192. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Theodoratos, D., Sellis, T.: Data warehouse schema and instance design. In: Ling, T.-W., Ram, S., Li Lee, M. (eds.) ER 1998. LNCS, vol. 1507, pp. 363–376. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thomson, E.: OLAP Solutions: Building Multidimensional Information Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (2002)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Turull Torres, J.M.: On the expressibility and computability of untyped queries. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 108(1-3), 345–371 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Van den Bussche, J.: Formal Aspects of Object Identity in Database Manipulation. PhD thesis, University of Antwerp (1993)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Widom, J.: Research problems in data warehousing. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management. ACM, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhao, J., Ma, H.: Quality-assured design of on-line analytical processing systems using abstract state machines. In: Ehrich, H.-D., Schewe, K.-D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Quality Software (QSIC 2004), Braunschweig, Germany. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhao, J., Schewe, K.-D.: Using abstract state machines for distributed data warehouse design. In: Hartmann, S., Roddick, J. (eds.) Conceptual Modelling 2004 – First Asia-Pacific Conference on Conceptual Modelling, Dunedin, New Zealand. CRPIT, vol. 31, pp. 49–58. Australian Computer Society (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hui Ma
    • 1
  • Klaus-Dieter Schewe
    • 1
  • Bernhard Thalheim
    • 2
  • Jane Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information Systems & Information Science Research CentreMassey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and Applied MathematicsChristian Albrechts University KielKielGermany

Personalised recommendations