A Calculus for the Refinement and Evolution of Multi-user Mobile Applications

  • W. Greg Phillips
  • T. C. Nicholas Graham
  • Christopher Wolfe
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3941)


The calculus outlined in this paper provides a formal architectural framework for describing and reasoning about the properties of multi-user and mobile distributed interactive systems. It is based on the Workspace Model, which incorporates both distribution-independent and implementation-specific representations of multi-user and mobile applications. The calculus includes an evolution component, allowing the representation of system change at either level over time. It also includes a refinement component supporting the translation of changes at either level into corresponding changes at the other. The combined calculus has several important properties, including locality and termination of the refinement process and commutativity of evolution and refinement. The calculus may be used to reason about fault tolerance and to define the semantics of programming language constructs.


Conceptual Level Graph Grammar Implementation Level Conceptual Architecture Implementation Architecture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Amir, Y., Danilov, C., Stanton, J.: A low latency, loss tolerant architecture and protocol for wide area group communication. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN 2000), p. 327. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2000), Also available from:
  2. 2.
    Braubach, L., Pokahr, A., Moldt, D., Bartelt, A., Lamersdorf, W.: Tool-supported interpreter-based user interface architecture for ubiquitous computing. In: Forbrig, P., Limbourg, Q., Urban, B., Vanderdonckt, J. (eds.) DSV-IS 2002. LNCS, vol. 2545, pp. 89–103. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dewan, P.: Architectures for collaborative applications. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, M. (ed.) Computer Supported Co-operative Work. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester (1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Edwards, W.K.: Core Jini, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall PTR, Englewood Cliffs (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Graham, T.C.N., Urnes, T., Nejabi, R.: Efficient distributed implementation of semireplicated synchronous groupware. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST 1996), Seattle, WA, USA, November (6–8), pp. 1–10. ACM Press, New York (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Krasner, G.E., Pope, S.T.: A cookbook for using the Model-View-Controller user interface paradigm in Smalltalk-80. Journal of Object- Oriented Programming 1(3), 26–49 (1988)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Laurillau, Y., Nigay, L.: Clover architecture for groupware. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2002), New Orleans, LA, USA, pp. 236–245. ACM Press, New York (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Litiu, R., Prakash, A.: Developing adaptive groupware applications using a mobile component framework. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2000), Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 107–116. ACM Press, New York (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Phillips, W.G.: Architectures for synchronous groupware. Technical Report 1999-425, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada (May 1999), Available from
  10. 10.
    Phillips, W.G., Graham, T.C.N.: Workspace Model Specification, version 1.0. Technical report 2005-493. Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada (March 2005), Available from
  11. 11.
    Phillips, W.G., Graham, T.C.N.: Workspaces: A multi-level architectural style for synchronous groupware. In: Jorge, J.A., Jardim Nunes, N., Falcão e Cunha, J. (eds.) DSV-IS 2003. LNCS, vol. 2844, pp. 92–106. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sun, C., Ellis, C.: Operational transformation in real-time group editors: Issues, algorithms, and achievments. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer- Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 1998), WA, USA, pp. 59–68. ACM Press, New York (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    van Renesse, R., Birman, K.P., Maffeis., S.: Horus, a flexible group communication system. Communications of the ACM 39(4), 76–83 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Greg Phillips
    • 1
  • T. C. Nicholas Graham
    • 2
  • Christopher Wolfe
    • 2
  1. 1.Electrical and Computer EngineeringRoyal Military College of CanadaKingstonCanada
  2. 2.School of ComputingQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations