A Novel Multibit Watermarking Scheme Combining Spread Spectrum and Quantization

  • Xinshan Zhu
  • Zhi Tang
  • Liesen Yang
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4283)


This paper presents a new multibit watermarking method. The method uses multiple orthonormalized watermark patterns of the same size as the host signal. In particular, the elements of each watermark pattern follow independent normal distribution. Each bit of the transmitted message is hidden using the dither quantizers to modify the projection of the host signal onto its corresponding watermark pattern. As a result, every hidden bit is spread over all elements of the host data and the extracting procedure is blind. Meanwhile, we consider how to choose a suitable quantization step size under the given distortion constraint. It is also proved mathematically that the upper bound of the bit error probability of our method is equal to one of the spread-transform dithered modulation (STDM) under the same situations. Experimental results show our scheme performs better than STDM in terms of bit error probability.


Error Probability Digital Watermark Quantization Step Host Signal Watermark Signal 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xinshan Zhu
    • 1
  • Zhi Tang
    • 1
  • Liesen Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Computer Science & Technology of Peking UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.National Key Laboratory of Text Processing TechnologyPeking UniversityBeijingChina

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