Reversible Watermarking for Error Diffused Halftone Images Using Statistical Features

  • Zhe-Ming Lu
  • Hao Luo
  • Jeng-Shyang Pan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4283)


This paper proposes a reversible watermarking scheme for error diffused halftone images. It exploits statistical features of 2×2 binary patterns in halftone images to embed data. According to a small look-up table constructed in advance, a state sequence is extracted and losslessly compressed, and the saved space is filled up with the watermark and some side information. We modulate the extracted state sequence into a new concatenated sequence by similar pair toggling, and meanwhile the watermark and the LUT are embedded. The proposed scheme can provide a considerable capacity and the original image can be recovered if its watermarked version is intact.


reversible watermarking halftone image statistical features 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ulichney, R.: Digital Halftoning. MIT Press, Cambridge (1987)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Floyd, R., Steinberg, L.: An adaptive algorithm for spatial gray scale. In: SID. Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers, pp. 36–37 (1975)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lieberman, D., Allebach, J.: Digital Halftoning Using the Direct Binary Search Algorithm. In: Proceedings of the 1996 IST International Conference on High Technology, Japan, pp. 114–124 (1996)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pan, J.S., Huang, H.C., Jain, L.C. (eds.): Intelligent Watermarking Techniques. World Scientific Publishing Company, Singapore (2004)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fu, M.S., Au, O.C.: Data Hiding Watermarking for Halftone Images. IEEE Transaction on Image Processing 11(4), 477–484 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baharav, Z., Shaked, D.: Watermarking of Dither Halftone Images. Hewlett-Packard Labs Tech. Rep., HPL-98-32 (1998)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hel-Or, H.Z.: Watermarking and Copyright Labeling of Printed Images. Journal of Electronic Imaging, 794–803 (2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liao, P.S., Pan, J.S., Chen, Y.H., Liao, B.Y.: A Lossless Watermarking Technique for Halftone Images. KES (2), 593–599 (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pan, J.S., Luo, H., Lu, Z.M.: A Lossless Watermarking Scheme for Halftone Image Authentication, vol. 6(2B), pp. 147–151 (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pei, S.C., Guo, J.M.: Hybrid Pixel-Based Data Hiding and Block-Based Watermarking for Error-Diffused Halftone Images. IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 867–884 (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fridrich, J., Goljan, M., Du, R.: Lossless Data Embedding New Paradigm in Digital Watermarking. Special Issue on Emerging Applications of Multimedia Data Hiding 2002(2), 185–196 (2002)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jarvis, J.F., Judice, C.N., Ninke, W.H.: A survey of techniques for the display of continuous-tone pictures on bilevel displays. Computer Graphics Image Process 5, 13–40 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stucki, P.: MECCA – A multiple error correcting computation algorithm for bilevel image hardcopy reproduction, Research Report RZ1060, IBM Res. Lab., Zurich, Switzerland (1981)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhe-Ming Lu
    • 1
  • Hao Luo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jeng-Shyang Pan
    • 2
  1. 1.Visual Information Analysis and Processing Research Center, Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate SchoolShenzhenP.R. China
  2. 2.Department of Electronic EngineeringKaohsiung University of Applied SciencesKaohsiungTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations