Transfer functions and electron microscope image formation

  • P. W. Hawkes
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 112)


Transfer Function Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope Partial Coherence Plane Conjugate High Resolution Microscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. G. Ade: Nichtlinearitätsprobleme bei Hell-und Dunkelfeldabbildungen, Optik, 42, 199–215 (1975).Google Scholar
  2. R.E. Burge and J.C. Dainty: Partially coherent image formation in the scanning transmission electron microscope, Optik, 46, 229–240 (1976).Google Scholar
  3. J. Frank: The envelope of electron microscopic transfer functions for partially coherent illumination, Optik, 38, 19–536 (1973 a).Google Scholar
  4. J. Frank: Computer processing of electron micrographs, in Advanced Techniques in Electron Microscopy, ed. by J.K. Koehler (Springer, Berlin and New York, 1973 b), pp. 215–274.Google Scholar
  5. J. Frank, S.C. McFarlane and K.H. Downing: A note on the effect of illumination aperture and defocus spread in brightfield electron microscopy, Optik, 52, 49–60 (1978/9).Google Scholar
  6. K.-J. Hanszen: The optical transfer theory of the electron microscope: fundamental principles and applications, Adv. Opt. Electron Micr., 4, 1–84 (1971).Google Scholar
  7. K.-J. Hanszen and G. Ade: A consistent Fourier optical representation of image formation in the conventional fixed beam electron microscope, in the scanning transmission electron microscope and of holographic reconstruction, PTBBericht APh-11, 31 pp (1977).Google Scholar
  8. K.-J. Hanszen and L. Trepte: Der Einfluss von Strom-und Spannungsschwankungen, sows der Energiebreite der Strahlelektronen, auf Kontrastübertragung und Auflösung des Elektronenmikroskops, Optik 32, 519–538 (1971)Google Scholar
  9. P.W. Hawkes: Electron Optics and Electron Microscopy (Taylor and Francis, London, 1972).Google Scholar
  10. P.W. Hawkes: Computer processing of electron micrographs. Int. Rev. Cytol. 42, 103–126 (1975).Google Scholar
  11. P.W. Hawkes: Electron image processing: a survey, Comp. Graph. Im. Proc. 8, 406–446 (1978 a).Google Scholar
  12. P.W. Hawkes: Coherence in electron optics, Adv. Opt. Electron Micr. 7, 101–184 (1978 b).Google Scholar
  13. P.W. Hawkes: Computer processing of electron micrographs, in Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy, ed. by M.A. Hayat (Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York and London, 1978 c), Vol. 8, pp. 262–306.Google Scholar
  14. W. Hoppe, D. Köstler, D. Typke and N. Hunsmann: Kontrastübertragung für die Hellfelc Bildrekonstruktion mit gekippter Beleuchtung in der Elektronenmikroskopie, Optik, 42, 43–56 (1975).Google Scholar
  15. O. Kübler, M. Hahn and J. Seredynski: Optical and digital spatial frequency filterir of electron micrographs, Optik 51, 171–188 and 235–256 (1978).Google Scholar
  16. F. Lenz: Transfer of image information in the electron microscope, in Electron Micrc cop in Material Science, ed. by U. Valdrë (Academic Press, New York and London, 1971), pp. 540–569.Google Scholar
  17. D.L. Misell: Image formation in the electron microscope with particular reference tc the defects in electron-optical images, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 32, 63–191 (1973).Google Scholar
  18. D.L. Misell: Image Analysis, Enhancement and Interpretation, (North Holland, Amsterdam, New York and Oxford, 1978).Google Scholar
  19. W.O. Saxton: Spatial coherence in axial high resolution conventional electron microscopy, Optik 49, 51–62 (1977).Google Scholar
  20. W.O. Saxton: Computer techniques for image processing in electron microscopy, Adv. Electron. Electron Phys., Suppl. 10, 289 pp (1978).Google Scholar
  21. W.O. Saxton, A. Howie, A. Mistry and A. Pitt: Fact and artefact in high resolution microscopy, in Developments in Electron Microscopy and Analysis, 1977, ed. by D.L. Misell (Institute of Physics, Bristol, 1977) pp. 119–122.Google Scholar
  22. W.O. Saxton, W.K. Jenkins, L.A. Freeman and D.J. Smith: TEM observations using brigt field hollow cone illumination, Optik, 49, 505–510 (1978).Google Scholar
  23. J.C.H. Spence and J.M. Cowley: Lattice imaging in STEM. Optik, 50, 129–142 (1978).Google Scholar
  24. R.H. Wade: The phase contrast characteristics in bright field electron microscopy, Ultramicroscopy, 3, 329–334 (1978).Google Scholar
  25. R.H. Wade and J. dFrank: Electron microscope transfer functions for partially coheres axial illumination and chromatic defocus spread, Optik, 49, 81–92 (1977).Google Scholar
  26. R.H. Wade and K.H. Jenkins: Tilted beam electron microscopy: the effective coherent aperture, Optik, 50, 1–17 (1978).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. W. Hawkes
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire d'Optique Electronique du C.N.R.S.Toulouse Cedex

Personalised recommendations